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// Copyright (c) 2015-2017 Khronos Group. This work is licensed under a
// Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License; see
// http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

[[resources]]
= Resource Creation

Vulkan supports two primary resource types: _buffers_ and _images_.
Resources are views of memory with associated formatting and dimensionality.
Buffers are essentially unformatted arrays of bytes whereas images contain
format information, can: be multidimensional and may: have associated
metadata.


[[resources-buffers]]
== Buffers

[open,refpage='VkBuffer',desc='Opaque handle to a buffer object',type='handles']
--

Buffers represent linear arrays of data which are used for various purposes
by binding them to a graphics or compute pipeline via descriptor sets or via
certain commands, or by directly specifying them as parameters to certain
commands.

Buffers are represented by sname:VkBuffer handles:

include::../api/handles/VkBuffer.txt[]

--

[open,refpage='vkCreateBuffer',desc='Create a new buffer object',type='protos']
--

To create buffers, call:

include::../api/protos/vkCreateBuffer.txt[]

  * pname:device is the logical device that creates the buffer object.
  * pname:pCreateInfo is a pointer to an instance of the
    sname:VkBufferCreateInfo structure containing parameters affecting
    creation of the buffer.
  * pname:pAllocator controls host memory allocation as described in the
    <<memory-allocation, Memory Allocation>> chapter.
  * pname:pBuffer points to a sname:VkBuffer handle in which the resulting
    buffer object is returned.

.Valid Usage
****
  * [[VUID-vkCreateBuffer-flags-00911]]
    If the pname:flags member of pname:pCreateInfo includes
    ename:VK_BUFFER_CREATE_SPARSE_BINDING_BIT, creating this sname:VkBuffer
    must: not cause the total required sparse memory for all currently valid
    sparse resources on the device to exceed
    sname:VkPhysicalDeviceLimits::pname:sparseAddressSpaceSize
****

include::../validity/protos/vkCreateBuffer.txt[]
--

[open,refpage='VkBufferCreateInfo',desc='Structure specifying the parameters of a newly created buffer object',type='structs']
--

The sname:VkBufferCreateInfo structure is defined as:

include::../api/structs/VkBufferCreateInfo.txt[]

  * pname:sType is the type of this structure.
  * pname:pNext is `NULL` or a pointer to an extension-specific structure.
  * pname:flags is a bitmask of elink:VkBufferCreateFlagBits specifying
    additional parameters of the buffer.
  * pname:size is the size in bytes of the buffer to be created.
  * pname:usage is a bitmask of elink:VkBufferUsageFlagBits specifying
    allowed usages of the buffer.
  * pname:sharingMode is a elink:VkSharingMode value specifying the sharing
    mode of the buffer when it will be accessed by multiple queue families.
  * pname:queueFamilyIndexCount is the number of entries in the
    pname:pQueueFamilyIndices array.
  * pname:pQueueFamilyIndices is a list of queue families that will access
    this buffer (ignored if pname:sharingMode is not
    ename:VK_SHARING_MODE_CONCURRENT).

ifdef::editing-notes[]
[NOTE]
.editing-note
==================
(Jon) Should the constraint on usage != 0 be converted to a Valid Usage
statement? See gitlab #854.
==================
endif::editing-notes[]

.Valid Usage
****
  * [[VUID-VkBufferCreateInfo-size-00912]]
    pname:size must: be greater than `0`
  * [[VUID-VkBufferCreateInfo-sharingMode-00913]]
    If pname:sharingMode is ename:VK_SHARING_MODE_CONCURRENT,
    pname:pQueueFamilyIndices must: be a pointer to an array of
    pname:queueFamilyIndexCount basetype:uint32_t values
  * [[VUID-VkBufferCreateInfo-sharingMode-00914]]
    If pname:sharingMode is ename:VK_SHARING_MODE_CONCURRENT,
    pname:queueFamilyIndexCount must: be greater than `1`
ifndef::VK_KHR_get_physical_device_properties2[]
  * [[VUID-VkBufferCreateInfo-sharingMode-01391]]
    If pname:sharingMode is ename:VK_SHARING_MODE_CONCURRENT, each element
    of pname:pQueueFamilyIndices must: be unique and must: be less than
    pname:pQueueFamilyPropertyCount returned by
    flink:vkGetPhysicalDeviceQueueFamilyProperties for the
    pname:physicalDevice that was used to create pname:device
endif::VK_KHR_get_physical_device_properties2[]
ifdef::VK_KHR_get_physical_device_properties2[]
  * [[VUID-VkBufferCreateInfo-sharingMode-01419]]
    If pname:sharingMode is ename:VK_SHARING_MODE_CONCURRENT, each element
    of pname:pQueueFamilyIndices must: be unique and must: be less than
    pname:pQueueFamilyPropertyCount returned by either
    flink:vkGetPhysicalDeviceQueueFamilyProperties or
    flink:vkGetPhysicalDeviceQueueFamilyProperties2KHR for the
    pname:physicalDevice that was used to create pname:device
endif::VK_KHR_get_physical_device_properties2[]
  * [[VUID-VkBufferCreateInfo-flags-00915]]
    If the <<features-features-sparseBinding,sparse bindings>> feature is
    not enabled, pname:flags must: not contain
    ename:VK_BUFFER_CREATE_SPARSE_BINDING_BIT
  * [[VUID-VkBufferCreateInfo-flags-00916]]
    If the <<features-features-sparseResidencyBuffer,sparse buffer
    residency>> feature is not enabled, pname:flags must: not contain
    ename:VK_BUFFER_CREATE_SPARSE_RESIDENCY_BIT
  * [[VUID-VkBufferCreateInfo-flags-00917]]
    If the <<features-features-sparseResidencyAliased,sparse aliased
    residency>> feature is not enabled, pname:flags must: not contain
    ename:VK_BUFFER_CREATE_SPARSE_ALIASED_BIT
  * [[VUID-VkBufferCreateInfo-flags-00918]]
    If pname:flags contains ename:VK_BUFFER_CREATE_SPARSE_RESIDENCY_BIT or
    ename:VK_BUFFER_CREATE_SPARSE_ALIASED_BIT, it must: also contain
    ename:VK_BUFFER_CREATE_SPARSE_BINDING_BIT
ifdef::VK_KHR_external_memory[]
  * [[VUID-VkBufferCreateInfo-pNext-00920]]
    If the pname:pNext chain contains an instance of
    slink:VkExternalMemoryBufferCreateInfoKHR, its pname:handleTypes member
    must: only contain bits that are also in
    slink:VkExternalBufferPropertiesKHR::pname:externalMemoryProperties.pname:compatibleHandleTypes,
    as returned by flink:vkGetPhysicalDeviceExternalBufferPropertiesKHR with
    pname:pExternalBufferInfo->pname:handleType equal to any one of the
    handle types specified in
    slink:VkExternalMemoryBufferCreateInfoKHR::pname:handleTypes
endif::VK_KHR_external_memory[]
ifdef::VK_NV_dedicated_allocation[]
  * [[VUID-VkBufferCreateInfo-pNext-01571]]
    If the pname:pNext chain contains an instance of
    slink:VkDedicatedAllocationBufferCreateInfoNV, and the
    pname:dedicatedAllocation member of the chained structure is
    ename:VK_TRUE, then pname:flags must: not include
    ename:VK_BUFFER_CREATE_SPARSE_BINDING_BIT,
    ename:VK_BUFFER_CREATE_SPARSE_RESIDENCY_BIT, or
    ename:VK_BUFFER_CREATE_SPARSE_ALIASED_BIT
endif::VK_NV_dedicated_allocation[]
****

include::../validity/structs/VkBufferCreateInfo.txt[]
--

[open,refpage='VkBufferUsageFlagBits',desc='Bitmask specifying allowed usage of a buffer',type='enums']
--

Bits which can: be set in slink:VkBufferCreateInfo::pname:usage, specifying
usage behavior of a buffer, are:

include::../api/enums/VkBufferUsageFlagBits.txt[]

  * ename:VK_BUFFER_USAGE_TRANSFER_SRC_BIT specifies that the buffer can: be
    used as the source of a _transfer command_ (see the definition of
    <<synchronization-pipeline-stages-transfer,
    ename:VK_PIPELINE_STAGE_TRANSFER_BIT>>).
  * ename:VK_BUFFER_USAGE_TRANSFER_DST_BIT specifies that the buffer can: be
    used as the destination of a transfer command.
  * ename:VK_BUFFER_USAGE_UNIFORM_TEXEL_BUFFER_BIT specifies that the buffer
    can: be used to create a sname:VkBufferView suitable for occupying a
    sname:VkDescriptorSet slot of type
    ename:VK_DESCRIPTOR_TYPE_UNIFORM_TEXEL_BUFFER.
  * ename:VK_BUFFER_USAGE_STORAGE_TEXEL_BUFFER_BIT specifies that the buffer
    can: be used to create a sname:VkBufferView suitable for occupying a
    sname:VkDescriptorSet slot of type
    ename:VK_DESCRIPTOR_TYPE_STORAGE_TEXEL_BUFFER.
  * ename:VK_BUFFER_USAGE_UNIFORM_BUFFER_BIT specifies that the buffer can:
    be used in a sname:VkDescriptorBufferInfo suitable for occupying a
    sname:VkDescriptorSet slot either of type
    ename:VK_DESCRIPTOR_TYPE_UNIFORM_BUFFER or
    ename:VK_DESCRIPTOR_TYPE_UNIFORM_BUFFER_DYNAMIC.
  * ename:VK_BUFFER_USAGE_STORAGE_BUFFER_BIT specifies that the buffer can:
    be used in a sname:VkDescriptorBufferInfo suitable for occupying a
    sname:VkDescriptorSet slot either of type
    ename:VK_DESCRIPTOR_TYPE_STORAGE_BUFFER or
    ename:VK_DESCRIPTOR_TYPE_STORAGE_BUFFER_DYNAMIC.
  * ename:VK_BUFFER_USAGE_INDEX_BUFFER_BIT specifies that the buffer is
    suitable for passing as the pname:buffer parameter to
    fname:vkCmdBindIndexBuffer.
  * ename:VK_BUFFER_USAGE_VERTEX_BUFFER_BIT specifies that the buffer is
    suitable for passing as an element of the pname:pBuffers array to
    fname:vkCmdBindVertexBuffers.
  * ename:VK_BUFFER_USAGE_INDIRECT_BUFFER_BIT specifies that the buffer is
    suitable for passing as the pname:buffer parameter to
    fname:vkCmdDrawIndirect, fname:vkCmdDrawIndexedIndirect, or
    fname:vkCmdDispatchIndirect.
ifdef::VK_NVX_device_generated_commands[]
    It is also suitable for passing as the pname:buffer member of
    sname:VkIndirectCommandsTokenNVX, or pname:sequencesCountBuffer or
    pname:sequencesIndexBuffer member of sname:VkCmdProcessCommandsInfoNVX
endif::VK_NVX_device_generated_commands[]

--

[open,refpage='VkBufferCreateFlagBits',desc='Bitmask specifying additional parameters of a buffer',type='enums']
--

Bits which can: be set in slink:VkBufferCreateInfo::pname:flags, specifying
additional parameters of a buffer, are:

include::../api/enums/VkBufferCreateFlagBits.txt[]

  * ename:VK_BUFFER_CREATE_SPARSE_BINDING_BIT specifies that the buffer will
    be backed using sparse memory binding.
  * ename:VK_BUFFER_CREATE_SPARSE_RESIDENCY_BIT specifies that the buffer
    can: be partially backed using sparse memory binding.
    Buffers created with this flag must: also be created with the
    ename:VK_BUFFER_CREATE_SPARSE_BINDING_BIT flag.
  * ename:VK_BUFFER_CREATE_SPARSE_ALIASED_BIT specifies that the buffer will
    be backed using sparse memory binding with memory ranges that might also
    simultaneously be backing another buffer (or another portion of the same
    buffer).
    Buffers created with this flag must: also be created with the
    ename:VK_BUFFER_CREATE_SPARSE_BINDING_BIT flag.

See <<sparsememory-sparseresourcefeatures,Sparse Resource Features>> and
<<features-features,Physical Device Features>> for details of the sparse
memory features supported on a device.

--

ifdef::VK_NV_dedicated_allocation[]

[open,refpage='VkDedicatedAllocationBufferCreateInfoNV',desc='Specify that a buffer is bound to a dedicated memory resource',type='structs']
--

If the pname:pNext chain includes a
sname:VkDedicatedAllocationBufferCreateInfoNV structure, then that structure
includes an enable controlling whether the buffer will have a dedicated
memory allocation bound to it.

The sname:VkDedicatedAllocationBufferCreateInfoNV structure is defined as:

include::../api/structs/VkDedicatedAllocationBufferCreateInfoNV.txt[]

  * pname:sType is the type of this structure.
  * pname:pNext is `NULL` or a pointer to an extension-specific structure.
  * pname:dedicatedAllocation indicates whether the buffer will have a
    dedicated allocation bound to it.

include::../validity/structs/VkDedicatedAllocationBufferCreateInfoNV.txt[]
--

endif::VK_NV_dedicated_allocation[]

ifdef::VK_KHR_external_memory[]

[open,refpage='VkExternalMemoryBufferCreateInfoKHR',desc='Specify that a buffer may be backed by external memory',type='structs']
--

To define a set of external memory handle types that may: be used as backing
store for a buffer, add a slink:VkExternalMemoryBufferCreateInfoKHR
structure to the pname:pNext chain of the slink:VkBufferCreateInfo
structure.
The sname:VkExternalMemoryBufferCreateInfoKHR structure is defined as:

include::../api/structs/VkExternalMemoryBufferCreateInfoKHR.txt[]

  * pname:sType is the type of this structure.
  * pname:pNext is `NULL` or a pointer to an extension-specific structure.
  * pname:handleTypes is a bitmask of
    elink:VkExternalMemoryHandleTypeFlagBitsKHR specifying one or more
    external memory handle types.

include::../validity/structs/VkExternalMemoryBufferCreateInfoKHR.txt[]
--

endif::VK_KHR_external_memory[]

[open,refpage='vkDestroyBuffer',desc='Destroy a buffer object',type='protos']
--

To destroy a buffer, call:

include::../api/protos/vkDestroyBuffer.txt[]

  * pname:device is the logical device that destroys the buffer.
  * pname:buffer is the buffer to destroy.
  * pname:pAllocator controls host memory allocation as described in the
    <<memory-allocation, Memory Allocation>> chapter.

.Valid Usage
****
  * [[VUID-vkDestroyBuffer-buffer-00922]]
    All submitted commands that refer to pname:buffer, either directly or
    via a sname:VkBufferView, must: have completed execution
  * [[VUID-vkDestroyBuffer-buffer-00923]]
    If sname:VkAllocationCallbacks were provided when pname:buffer was
    created, a compatible set of callbacks must: be provided here
  * [[VUID-vkDestroyBuffer-buffer-00924]]
    If no sname:VkAllocationCallbacks were provided when pname:buffer was
    created, pname:pAllocator must: be `NULL`
****

include::../validity/protos/vkDestroyBuffer.txt[]
--


[[resources-buffer-views]]
== Buffer Views

[open,refpage='VkBufferView',desc='Opaque handle to a buffer view object',type='handles']
--

A _buffer view_ represents a contiguous range of a buffer and a specific
format to be used to interpret the data.
Buffer views are used to enable shaders to access buffer contents
interpreted as formatted data.
In order to create a valid buffer view, the buffer must: have been created
with at least one of the following usage flags:

  * ename:VK_BUFFER_USAGE_UNIFORM_TEXEL_BUFFER_BIT
  * ename:VK_BUFFER_USAGE_STORAGE_TEXEL_BUFFER_BIT

Buffer views are represented by sname:VkBufferView handles:

include::../api/handles/VkBufferView.txt[]

--

[open,refpage='vkCreateBufferView',desc='Create a new buffer view object',type='protos']
--

To create a buffer view, call:

include::../api/protos/vkCreateBufferView.txt[]

  * pname:device is the logical device that creates the buffer view.
  * pname:pCreateInfo is a pointer to an instance of the
    sname:VkBufferViewCreateInfo structure containing parameters to be used
    to create the buffer.
  * pname:pAllocator controls host memory allocation as described in the
    <<memory-allocation, Memory Allocation>> chapter.
  * pname:pView points to a sname:VkBufferView handle in which the resulting
    buffer view object is returned.

include::../validity/protos/vkCreateBufferView.txt[]
--

[open,refpage='VkBufferViewCreateInfo',desc='Structure specifying parameters of a newly created buffer view',type='structs']
--

The sname:VkBufferViewCreateInfo structure is defined as:

include::../api/structs/VkBufferViewCreateInfo.txt[]

  * pname:sType is the type of this structure.
  * pname:pNext is `NULL` or a pointer to an extension-specific structure.
  * pname:flags is reserved for future use.
  * pname:buffer is a sname:VkBuffer on which the view will be created.
  * pname:format is a elink:VkFormat describing the format of the data
    elements in the buffer.
  * pname:offset is an offset in bytes from the base address of the buffer.
    Accesses to the buffer view from shaders use addressing that is relative
    to this starting offset.
  * pname:range is a size in bytes of the buffer view.
    If pname:range is equal to ename:VK_WHOLE_SIZE, the range from
    pname:offset to the end of the buffer is used.
    If ename:VK_WHOLE_SIZE is used and the remaining size of the buffer is
    not a multiple of the element size of pname:format, then the nearest
    smaller multiple is used.

.Valid Usage
****
  * [[VUID-VkBufferViewCreateInfo-offset-00925]]
    pname:offset must: be less than the size of pname:buffer
  * [[VUID-VkBufferViewCreateInfo-offset-00926]]
    pname:offset must: be a multiple of
    sname:VkPhysicalDeviceLimits::pname:minTexelBufferOffsetAlignment
  * [[VUID-VkBufferViewCreateInfo-range-00928]]
    If pname:range is not equal to ename:VK_WHOLE_SIZE, pname:range must: be
    greater than `0`
  * [[VUID-VkBufferViewCreateInfo-range-00929]]
    If pname:range is not equal to ename:VK_WHOLE_SIZE, pname:range must: be
    a multiple of the element size of pname:format
  * [[VUID-VkBufferViewCreateInfo-range-00930]]
    If pname:range is not equal to ename:VK_WHOLE_SIZE, pname:range divided
    by the element size of pname:format must: be less than or equal to
    sname:VkPhysicalDeviceLimits::pname:maxTexelBufferElements
  * [[VUID-VkBufferViewCreateInfo-offset-00931]]
    If pname:range is not equal to ename:VK_WHOLE_SIZE, the sum of
    pname:offset and pname:range must: be less than or equal to the size of
    pname:buffer
  * [[VUID-VkBufferViewCreateInfo-buffer-00932]]
    pname:buffer must: have been created with a pname:usage value containing
    at least one of ename:VK_BUFFER_USAGE_UNIFORM_TEXEL_BUFFER_BIT or
    ename:VK_BUFFER_USAGE_STORAGE_TEXEL_BUFFER_BIT
  * [[VUID-VkBufferViewCreateInfo-buffer-00933]]
    If pname:buffer was created with pname:usage containing
    ename:VK_BUFFER_USAGE_UNIFORM_TEXEL_BUFFER_BIT, pname:format must: be
    supported for uniform texel buffers, as specified by the
    ename:VK_FORMAT_FEATURE_UNIFORM_TEXEL_BUFFER_BIT flag in
    sname:VkFormatProperties::pname:bufferFeatures returned by
    fname:vkGetPhysicalDeviceFormatProperties
  * [[VUID-VkBufferViewCreateInfo-buffer-00934]]
    If pname:buffer was created with pname:usage containing
    ename:VK_BUFFER_USAGE_STORAGE_TEXEL_BUFFER_BIT, pname:format must: be
    supported for storage texel buffers, as specified by the
    ename:VK_FORMAT_FEATURE_STORAGE_TEXEL_BUFFER_BIT flag in
    sname:VkFormatProperties::pname:bufferFeatures returned by
    fname:vkGetPhysicalDeviceFormatProperties
  * [[VUID-VkBufferViewCreateInfo-buffer-00935]]
    If pname:buffer is non-sparse then it must: be bound completely and
    contiguously to a single sname:VkDeviceMemory object
****

include::../validity/structs/VkBufferViewCreateInfo.txt[]
--

[open,refpage='vkDestroyBufferView',desc='Destroy a buffer view object',type='protos']
--

To destroy a buffer view, call:

include::../api/protos/vkDestroyBufferView.txt[]

  * pname:device is the logical device that destroys the buffer view.
  * pname:bufferView is the buffer view to destroy.
  * pname:pAllocator controls host memory allocation as described in the
    <<memory-allocation, Memory Allocation>> chapter.

.Valid Usage
****
  * [[VUID-vkDestroyBufferView-bufferView-00936]]
    All submitted commands that refer to pname:bufferView must: have
    completed execution
  * [[VUID-vkDestroyBufferView-bufferView-00937]]
    If sname:VkAllocationCallbacks were provided when pname:bufferView was
    created, a compatible set of callbacks must: be provided here
  * [[VUID-vkDestroyBufferView-bufferView-00938]]
    If no sname:VkAllocationCallbacks were provided when pname:bufferView
    was created, pname:pAllocator must: be `NULL`
****

include::../validity/protos/vkDestroyBufferView.txt[]
--


[[resources-images]]
== Images

[open,refpage='VkImage',desc='Opaque handle to a image object',type='handles']
--

Images represent multidimensional - up to 3 - arrays of data which can: be
used for various purposes (e.g. attachments, textures), by binding them to a
graphics or compute pipeline via descriptor sets, or by directly specifying
them as parameters to certain commands.

Images are represented by sname:VkImage handles:

include::../api/handles/VkImage.txt[]

--

[open,refpage='vkCreateImage',desc='Create a new image object',type='protos']
--

To create images, call:

include::../api/protos/vkCreateImage.txt[]

  * pname:device is the logical device that creates the image.
  * pname:pCreateInfo is a pointer to an instance of the
    sname:VkImageCreateInfo structure containing parameters to be used to
    create the image.
  * pname:pAllocator controls host memory allocation as described in the
    <<memory-allocation, Memory Allocation>> chapter.
  * pname:pImage points to a sname:VkImage handle in which the resulting
    image object is returned.

.Valid Usage
****
  * [[VUID-vkCreateImage-flags-00939]]
    If the pname:flags member of pname:pCreateInfo includes
    ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_SPARSE_BINDING_BIT, creating this sname:VkImage
    must: not cause the total required sparse memory for all currently valid
    sparse resources on the device to exceed
    sname:VkPhysicalDeviceLimits::pname:sparseAddressSpaceSize
****

include::../validity/protos/vkCreateImage.txt[]
--

[open,refpage='VkImageCreateInfo',desc='Structure specifying the parameters of a newly created image object',type='structs']
--

The sname:VkImageCreateInfo structure is defined as:

include::../api/structs/VkImageCreateInfo.txt[]

  * pname:sType is the type of this structure.
  * pname:pNext is `NULL` or a pointer to an extension-specific structure.
  * pname:flags is a bitmask of elink:VkImageCreateFlagBits describing
    additional parameters of the image.
  * pname:imageType is a elink:VkImageType value specifying the basic
    dimensionality of the image.
    Layers in array textures do not count as a dimension for the purposes of
    the image type.
  * pname:format is a elink:VkFormat describing the format and type of the
    data elements that will be contained in the image.
  * pname:extent is a slink:VkExtent3D describing the number of data
    elements in each dimension of the base level.
  * pname:mipLevels describes the number of levels of detail available for
    minified sampling of the image.
  * pname:arrayLayers is the number of layers in the image.
  * pname:samples is the number of sub-data element samples in the image as
    defined in elink:VkSampleCountFlagBits.
    See <<primsrast-multisampling,Multisampling>>.
  * pname:tiling is a elink:VkImageTiling value specifying the tiling
    arrangement of the data elements in memory.
  * pname:usage is a bitmask of elink:VkImageUsageFlagBits describing the
    intended usage of the image.
  * pname:sharingMode is a elink:VkSharingMode value specifying the sharing
    mode of the image when it will be accessed by multiple queue families.
  * pname:queueFamilyIndexCount is the number of entries in the
    pname:pQueueFamilyIndices array.
  * pname:pQueueFamilyIndices is a list of queue families that will access
    this image (ignored if pname:sharingMode is not
    ename:VK_SHARING_MODE_CONCURRENT).
  * pname:initialLayout is a elink:VkImageLayout value specifying the
    initial elink:VkImageLayout of all image subresources of the image.
    See <<resources-image-layouts,Image Layouts>>.

Images created with pname:tiling equal to ename:VK_IMAGE_TILING_LINEAR have
further restrictions on their limits and capabilities compared to images
created with pname:tiling equal to ename:VK_IMAGE_TILING_OPTIMAL.
Creation of images with tiling ename:VK_IMAGE_TILING_LINEAR may: not be
supported unless other parameters meet all of the constraints:

  * pname:imageType is ename:VK_IMAGE_TYPE_2D
  * pname:format is not a depth/stencil format
  * pname:mipLevels is 1
  * pname:arrayLayers is 1
  * pname:samples is ename:VK_SAMPLE_COUNT_1_BIT
  * pname:usage only includes ename:VK_IMAGE_USAGE_TRANSFER_SRC_BIT and/or
    ename:VK_IMAGE_USAGE_TRANSFER_DST_BIT

Implementations may: support additional limits and capabilities beyond those
listed above.

To query an implementation's specific capabilities for a given combination
of pname:format, pname:imageType, pname:tiling, pname:usage,
ifdef::VK_KHR_external_memory_capabilities[]
slink:VkExternalMemoryImageCreateInfoKHR::pname:handleTypes
endif::VK_KHR_external_memory_capabilities[]
and pname:flags, call
ifdef::VK_KHR_get_physical_device_properties2[]
flink:vkGetPhysicalDeviceImageFormatProperties2KHR.
endif::VK_KHR_get_physical_device_properties2[]
ifndef::VK_KHR_get_physical_device_properties2[]
flink:vkGetPhysicalDeviceImageFormatProperties.
endif::VK_KHR_get_physical_device_properties2[]
The return value indicates whether that combination of image settings is
supported.
On success, the sname:VkImageFormatProperties output parameter indicates the
set of valid pname:samples bits and the limits for pname:extent,
pname:mipLevels, and pname:arrayLayers.

To determine the set of valid pname:usage bits for a given format, call
flink:vkGetPhysicalDeviceFormatProperties.

ifdef::VK_KHR_maintenance2[]
[NOTE]
.Note
====
For images created without ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_EXTENDED_USAGE_BIT_KHR a
pname:usage bit is valid if it is supported for the format the image is
created with.

For images created with ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_EXTENDED_USAGE_BIT_KHR a
pname:usage bit is valid if it is supported for at least one of the formats
a sname:VkImageView created from the image can: have (see
<<resources-image-views,Image Views>> for more detail).
====
endif::VK_KHR_maintenance2[]

.Valid Usage
****
  * [[VUID-VkImageCreateInfo-format-00940]]
    The combination of pname:format, pname:imageType, pname:tiling,
    pname:usage, and pname:flags must: be supported, as indicated by a
    ename:VK_SUCCESS return value from
    fname:vkGetPhysicalDeviceImageFormatProperties invoked with the same
    values passed to the corresponding parameters.
  * [[VUID-VkImageCreateInfo-sharingMode-00941]]
    If pname:sharingMode is ename:VK_SHARING_MODE_CONCURRENT,
    pname:pQueueFamilyIndices must: be a pointer to an array of
    pname:queueFamilyIndexCount basetype:uint32_t values
  * [[VUID-VkImageCreateInfo-sharingMode-00942]]
    If pname:sharingMode is ename:VK_SHARING_MODE_CONCURRENT,
    pname:queueFamilyIndexCount must: be greater than `1`
ifndef::VK_KHR_get_physical_device_properties2[]
  * [[VUID-VkImageCreateInfo-sharingMode-01392]]
    If pname:sharingMode is ename:VK_SHARING_MODE_CONCURRENT, each element
    of pname:pQueueFamilyIndices must: be unique and must: be less than
    pname:pQueueFamilyPropertyCount returned by
    flink:vkGetPhysicalDeviceQueueFamilyProperties for the
    pname:physicalDevice that was used to create pname:device
endif::VK_KHR_get_physical_device_properties2[]
ifdef::VK_KHR_get_physical_device_properties2[]
  * [[VUID-VkImageCreateInfo-sharingMode-01420]]
    If pname:sharingMode is ename:VK_SHARING_MODE_CONCURRENT, each element
    of pname:pQueueFamilyIndices must: be unique and must: be less than
    pname:pQueueFamilyPropertyCount returned by either
    flink:vkGetPhysicalDeviceQueueFamilyProperties or
    flink:vkGetPhysicalDeviceQueueFamilyProperties2KHR for the
    pname:physicalDevice that was used to create pname:device
endif::VK_KHR_get_physical_device_properties2[]
  * [[VUID-VkImageCreateInfo-format-00943]]
    pname:format must: not be ename:VK_FORMAT_UNDEFINED
  * [[VUID-VkImageCreateInfo-extent-00944]]
    pname:extent::pname:width must: be greater than `0`.
  * [[VUID-VkImageCreateInfo-extent-00945]]
    pname:extent::pname:height must: be greater than `0`.
  * [[VUID-VkImageCreateInfo-extent-00946]]
    pname:extent::pname:depth must: be greater than `0`.
  * [[VUID-VkImageCreateInfo-mipLevels-00947]]
    pname:mipLevels must: be greater than `0`
  * [[VUID-VkImageCreateInfo-arrayLayers-00948]]
    pname:arrayLayers must: be greater than `0`
  * [[VUID-VkImageCreateInfo-flags-00949]]
    If pname:flags contains ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_CUBE_COMPATIBLE_BIT,
    pname:imageType must: be ename:VK_IMAGE_TYPE_2D
ifdef::VK_KHR_maintenance1[]
  * [[VUID-VkImageCreateInfo-flags-00950]]
    If pname:flags contains
    ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_2D_ARRAY_COMPATIBLE_BIT_KHR, pname:imageType must:
    be ename:VK_IMAGE_TYPE_3D
endif::VK_KHR_maintenance1[]
  * [[VUID-VkImageCreateInfo-imageType-00951]]
    If pname:imageType is ename:VK_IMAGE_TYPE_1D, pname:extent.width must:
    be less than or equal to
    sname:VkPhysicalDeviceLimits::pname:maxImageDimension1D, or
    sname:VkImageFormatProperties::pname:maxExtent.width (as returned by
    fname:vkGetPhysicalDeviceImageFormatProperties with pname:format,
    pname:imageType, pname:tiling, pname:usage, and pname:flags equal to
    those in this structure) - whichever is higher
  * [[VUID-VkImageCreateInfo-imageType-00952]]
    If pname:imageType is ename:VK_IMAGE_TYPE_2D and pname:flags does not
    contain ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_CUBE_COMPATIBLE_BIT, pname:extent.width
    and pname:extent.height must: be less than or equal to
    sname:VkPhysicalDeviceLimits::pname:maxImageDimension2D, or
    sname:VkImageFormatProperties::pname:maxExtent.width/height (as returned
    by fname:vkGetPhysicalDeviceImageFormatProperties with pname:format,
    pname:imageType, pname:tiling, pname:usage, and pname:flags equal to
    those in this structure) - whichever is higher
  * [[VUID-VkImageCreateInfo-imageType-00953]]
    If pname:imageType is ename:VK_IMAGE_TYPE_2D and pname:flags contains
    ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_CUBE_COMPATIBLE_BIT, pname:extent.width and
    pname:extent.height must: be less than or equal to
    sname:VkPhysicalDeviceLimits::pname:maxImageDimensionCube, or
    sname:VkImageFormatProperties::pname:maxExtent.width/height (as returned
    by fname:vkGetPhysicalDeviceImageFormatProperties with pname:format,
    pname:imageType, pname:tiling, pname:usage, and pname:flags equal to
    those in this structure) - whichever is higher
  * [[VUID-VkImageCreateInfo-imageType-00954]]
    If pname:imageType is ename:VK_IMAGE_TYPE_2D and pname:flags contains
    ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_CUBE_COMPATIBLE_BIT, pname:extent.width and
    pname:extent.height must: be equal and pname:arrayLayers must: be
    greater than or equal to 6
  * [[VUID-VkImageCreateInfo-imageType-00955]]
    If pname:imageType is ename:VK_IMAGE_TYPE_3D, pname:extent.width,
    pname:extent.height and pname:extent.depth must: be less than or equal
    to sname:VkPhysicalDeviceLimits::pname:maxImageDimension3D, or
    sname:VkImageFormatProperties::pname:maxExtent.width/height/depth (as
    returned by fname:vkGetPhysicalDeviceImageFormatProperties with
    pname:format, pname:imageType, pname:tiling, pname:usage, and
    pname:flags equal to those in this structure) - whichever is higher
  * [[VUID-VkImageCreateInfo-imageType-00956]]
    If pname:imageType is ename:VK_IMAGE_TYPE_1D, both pname:extent.height
    and pname:extent.depth must: be `1`
  * [[VUID-VkImageCreateInfo-imageType-00957]]
    If pname:imageType is ename:VK_IMAGE_TYPE_2D, pname:extent.depth must:
    be `1`
  * [[VUID-VkImageCreateInfo-mipLevels-00958]]
    pname:mipLevels must: be less than or equal to
    [eq]#{lfloor}log~2~(max(pname:extent.width, pname:extent.height,
    pname:extent.depth)){rfloor} {plus} 1#.
  * [[VUID-VkImageCreateInfo-extent-00959]]
    If any of pname:extent.width, pname:extent.height, or pname:extent.depth
    are greater than the equivalently named members of
    sname:VkPhysicalDeviceLimits::pname:maxImageDimension3D, pname:mipLevels
    must: be less than or equal to
    sname:VkImageFormatProperties::pname:maxMipLevels (as returned by
    fname:vkGetPhysicalDeviceImageFormatProperties with pname:format,
    pname:imageType, pname:tiling, pname:usage, and pname:flags equal to
    those in this structure)
  * [[VUID-VkImageCreateInfo-arrayLayers-00960]]
    pname:arrayLayers must: be less than or equal to
    sname:VkImageFormatProperties::pname:maxArrayLayers (as returned by
    fname:vkGetPhysicalDeviceImageFormatProperties with pname:format,
    pname:imageType, pname:tiling, pname:usage, and pname:flags equal to
    those in this structure)
  * [[VUID-VkImageCreateInfo-imageType-00961]]
    If pname:imageType is ename:VK_IMAGE_TYPE_3D, pname:arrayLayers must: be
    `1`.
  * [[VUID-VkImageCreateInfo-samples-00962]]
    If pname:samples is not ename:VK_SAMPLE_COUNT_1_BIT, pname:imageType
    must: be ename:VK_IMAGE_TYPE_2D, pname:flags must: not contain
    ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_CUBE_COMPATIBLE_BIT, pname:tiling must: be
    ename:VK_IMAGE_TILING_OPTIMAL, and pname:mipLevels must: be equal to `1`
  * [[VUID-VkImageCreateInfo-usage-00963]]
    If pname:usage includes ename:VK_IMAGE_USAGE_TRANSIENT_ATTACHMENT_BIT,
    then bits other than ename:VK_IMAGE_USAGE_COLOR_ATTACHMENT_BIT,
    ename:VK_IMAGE_USAGE_DEPTH_STENCIL_ATTACHMENT_BIT, and
    ename:VK_IMAGE_USAGE_INPUT_ATTACHMENT_BIT must: not be set
  * [[VUID-VkImageCreateInfo-usage-00964]]
    If pname:usage includes ename:VK_IMAGE_USAGE_COLOR_ATTACHMENT_BIT,
    ename:VK_IMAGE_USAGE_DEPTH_STENCIL_ATTACHMENT_BIT,
    ename:VK_IMAGE_USAGE_TRANSIENT_ATTACHMENT_BIT, or
    ename:VK_IMAGE_USAGE_INPUT_ATTACHMENT_BIT, pname:extent.width must: be
    less than or equal to
    sname:VkPhysicalDeviceLimits::pname:maxFramebufferWidth
  * [[VUID-VkImageCreateInfo-usage-00965]]
    If pname:usage includes ename:VK_IMAGE_USAGE_COLOR_ATTACHMENT_BIT,
    ename:VK_IMAGE_USAGE_DEPTH_STENCIL_ATTACHMENT_BIT,
    ename:VK_IMAGE_USAGE_TRANSIENT_ATTACHMENT_BIT, or
    ename:VK_IMAGE_USAGE_INPUT_ATTACHMENT_BIT, pname:extent.height must: be
    less than or equal to
    sname:VkPhysicalDeviceLimits::pname:maxFramebufferHeight
  * [[VUID-VkImageCreateInfo-usage-00966]]
    If pname:usage includes ename:VK_IMAGE_USAGE_TRANSIENT_ATTACHMENT_BIT,
    pname:usage must: also contain at least one of
    ename:VK_IMAGE_USAGE_COLOR_ATTACHMENT_BIT,
    ename:VK_IMAGE_USAGE_DEPTH_STENCIL_ATTACHMENT_BIT, or
    ename:VK_IMAGE_USAGE_INPUT_ATTACHMENT_BIT.
  * [[VUID-VkImageCreateInfo-samples-00967]]
    pname:samples must: be a bit value that is set in
    sname:VkImageFormatProperties::pname:sampleCounts returned by
    fname:vkGetPhysicalDeviceImageFormatProperties with pname:format,
    pname:imageType, pname:tiling, pname:usage, and pname:flags equal to
    those in this structure
  * [[VUID-VkImageCreateInfo-usage-00968]]
    If the <<features-features-shaderStorageImageMultisample,multisampled
    storage images>> feature is not enabled, and pname:usage contains
    ename:VK_IMAGE_USAGE_STORAGE_BIT, pname:samples must: be
    ename:VK_SAMPLE_COUNT_1_BIT
  * [[VUID-VkImageCreateInfo-flags-00969]]
    If the <<features-features-sparseBinding,sparse bindings>> feature is
    not enabled, pname:flags must: not contain
    ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_SPARSE_BINDING_BIT
  * [[VUID-VkImageCreateInfo-imageType-00970]]
    If pname:imageType is ename:VK_IMAGE_TYPE_1D, pname:flags must: not
    contain ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_SPARSE_RESIDENCY_BIT
  * [[VUID-VkImageCreateInfo-imageType-00971]]
    If the <<features-features-sparseResidencyImage2D,sparse residency for
    2D images>> feature is not enabled, and pname:imageType is
    ename:VK_IMAGE_TYPE_2D, pname:flags must: not contain
    ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_SPARSE_RESIDENCY_BIT
  * [[VUID-VkImageCreateInfo-imageType-00972]]
    If the <<features-features-sparseResidencyImage3D,sparse residency for
    3D images>> feature is not enabled, and pname:imageType is
    ename:VK_IMAGE_TYPE_3D, pname:flags must: not contain
    ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_SPARSE_RESIDENCY_BIT
  * [[VUID-VkImageCreateInfo-imageType-00973]]
    If the <<features-features-sparseResidency2Samples,sparse residency for
    images with 2 samples>> feature is not enabled, pname:imageType is
    ename:VK_IMAGE_TYPE_2D, and pname:samples is
    ename:VK_SAMPLE_COUNT_2_BIT, pname:flags must: not contain
    ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_SPARSE_RESIDENCY_BIT
  * [[VUID-VkImageCreateInfo-imageType-00974]]
    If the <<features-features-sparseResidency4Samples,sparse residency for
    images with 4 samples>> feature is not enabled, pname:imageType is
    ename:VK_IMAGE_TYPE_2D, and pname:samples is
    ename:VK_SAMPLE_COUNT_4_BIT, pname:flags must: not contain
    ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_SPARSE_RESIDENCY_BIT
  * [[VUID-VkImageCreateInfo-imageType-00975]]
    If the <<features-features-sparseResidency8Samples,sparse residency for
    images with 8 samples>> feature is not enabled, pname:imageType is
    ename:VK_IMAGE_TYPE_2D, and pname:samples is
    ename:VK_SAMPLE_COUNT_8_BIT, pname:flags must: not contain
    ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_SPARSE_RESIDENCY_BIT
  * [[VUID-VkImageCreateInfo-imageType-00976]]
    If the <<features-features-sparseResidency16Samples,sparse residency for
    images with 16 samples>> feature is not enabled, pname:imageType is
    ename:VK_IMAGE_TYPE_2D, and pname:samples is
    ename:VK_SAMPLE_COUNT_16_BIT, pname:flags must: not contain
    ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_SPARSE_RESIDENCY_BIT
  * [[VUID-VkImageCreateInfo-tiling-00977]]
    If pname:tiling is ename:VK_IMAGE_TILING_LINEAR, pname:format must: be a
    format that has at least one supported feature bit present in the value
    of sname:VkFormatProperties::pname:linearTilingFeatures returned by
    fname:vkGetPhysicalDeviceFormatProperties with the same value of
    pname:format
  * [[VUID-VkImageCreateInfo-tiling-00978]]
    If pname:tiling is ename:VK_IMAGE_TILING_LINEAR, and
    sname:VkFormatProperties::pname:linearTilingFeatures (as returned by
    fname:vkGetPhysicalDeviceFormatProperties with the same value of
    pname:format) does not include
    ename:VK_FORMAT_FEATURE_SAMPLED_IMAGE_BIT, pname:usage must: not contain
    ename:VK_IMAGE_USAGE_SAMPLED_BIT
  * [[VUID-VkImageCreateInfo-tiling-00979]]
    If pname:tiling is ename:VK_IMAGE_TILING_LINEAR, and
    sname:VkFormatProperties::pname:linearTilingFeatures (as returned by
    fname:vkGetPhysicalDeviceFormatProperties with the same value of
    pname:format) does not include
    ename:VK_FORMAT_FEATURE_STORAGE_IMAGE_BIT, pname:usage must: not contain
    ename:VK_IMAGE_USAGE_STORAGE_BIT
  * [[VUID-VkImageCreateInfo-tiling-00980]]
    If pname:tiling is ename:VK_IMAGE_TILING_LINEAR, and
    sname:VkFormatProperties::pname:linearTilingFeatures (as returned by
    fname:vkGetPhysicalDeviceFormatProperties with the same value of
    pname:format) does not include
    ename:VK_FORMAT_FEATURE_COLOR_ATTACHMENT_BIT, pname:usage must: not
    contain ename:VK_IMAGE_USAGE_COLOR_ATTACHMENT_BIT
  * [[VUID-VkImageCreateInfo-tiling-00981]]
    If pname:tiling is ename:VK_IMAGE_TILING_LINEAR, and
    sname:VkFormatProperties::pname:linearTilingFeatures (as returned by
    fname:vkGetPhysicalDeviceFormatProperties with the same value of
    pname:format) does not include
    ename:VK_FORMAT_FEATURE_DEPTH_STENCIL_ATTACHMENT_BIT, pname:usage must:
    not contain ename:VK_IMAGE_USAGE_DEPTH_STENCIL_ATTACHMENT_BIT
  * [[VUID-VkImageCreateInfo-tiling-00982]]
    If pname:tiling is ename:VK_IMAGE_TILING_OPTIMAL, pname:format must: be
    a format that has at least one supported feature bit present in the
    value of sname:VkFormatProperties::pname:optimalTilingFeatures returned
    by fname:vkGetPhysicalDeviceFormatProperties with the same value of
    pname:format
  * [[VUID-VkImageCreateInfo-tiling-00983]]
    If pname:tiling is ename:VK_IMAGE_TILING_OPTIMAL, and
    sname:VkFormatProperties::pname:optimalTilingFeatures (as returned by
    fname:vkGetPhysicalDeviceFormatProperties with the same value of
    pname:format) does not include
    ename:VK_FORMAT_FEATURE_SAMPLED_IMAGE_BIT, pname:usage must: not contain
    ename:VK_IMAGE_USAGE_SAMPLED_BIT
  * [[VUID-VkImageCreateInfo-tiling-00984]]
    If pname:tiling is ename:VK_IMAGE_TILING_OPTIMAL, and
    sname:VkFormatProperties::pname:optimalTilingFeatures (as returned by
    fname:vkGetPhysicalDeviceFormatProperties with the same value of
    pname:format) does not include
    ename:VK_FORMAT_FEATURE_STORAGE_IMAGE_BIT, pname:usage must: not contain
    ename:VK_IMAGE_USAGE_STORAGE_BIT
  * [[VUID-VkImageCreateInfo-tiling-00985]]
    If pname:tiling is ename:VK_IMAGE_TILING_OPTIMAL, and
    sname:VkFormatProperties::pname:optimalTilingFeatures (as returned by
    fname:vkGetPhysicalDeviceFormatProperties with the same value of
    pname:format) does not include
    ename:VK_FORMAT_FEATURE_COLOR_ATTACHMENT_BIT, pname:usage must: not
    contain ename:VK_IMAGE_USAGE_COLOR_ATTACHMENT_BIT
  * [[VUID-VkImageCreateInfo-tiling-00986]]
    If pname:tiling is ename:VK_IMAGE_TILING_OPTIMAL, and
    sname:VkFormatProperties::pname:optimalTilingFeatures (as returned by
    fname:vkGetPhysicalDeviceFormatProperties with the same value of
    pname:format) does not include
    ename:VK_FORMAT_FEATURE_DEPTH_STENCIL_ATTACHMENT_BIT, pname:usage must:
    not contain ename:VK_IMAGE_USAGE_DEPTH_STENCIL_ATTACHMENT_BIT
  * [[VUID-VkImageCreateInfo-flags-00987]]
    If pname:flags contains ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_SPARSE_RESIDENCY_BIT or
    ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_SPARSE_ALIASED_BIT, it must: also contain
    ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_SPARSE_BINDING_BIT
ifdef::VK_NV_external_memory+VK_KHR_external_memory[]
  * [[VUID-VkImageCreateInfo-pNext-00988]]
    If the pname:pNext chain contains an instance of
    slink:VkExternalMemoryImageCreateInfoNV, it must: not contain an
    instance of slink:VkExternalMemoryImageCreateInfoKHR.
endif::VK_NV_external_memory+VK_KHR_external_memory[]
ifdef::VK_KHR_external_memory[]
  * [[VUID-VkImageCreateInfo-pNext-00990]]
    If the pname:pNext chain contains an instance of
    slink:VkExternalMemoryImageCreateInfoKHR, its pname:handleTypes member
    must: only contain bits that are also in
    slink:VkExternalImageFormatPropertiesKHR::pname:externalMemoryProperties::pname:compatibleHandleTypes,
    as returned by flink:vkGetPhysicalDeviceImageFormatProperties2KHR with
    pname:format, pname:imageType, pname:tiling, pname:usage, and
    pname:flags equal to those in this structure, and with an instance of
    slink:VkPhysicalDeviceExternalImageFormatInfoKHR in the pname:pNext
    chain, with a pname:handleType equal to any one of the handle types
    specified in slink:VkExternalMemoryImageCreateInfoKHR::pname:handleTypes
endif::VK_KHR_external_memory[]
ifdef::VK_NV_external_memory+VK_NV_external_memory_capabilities[]
  * [[VUID-VkImageCreateInfo-pNext-00991]]
    If the pname:pNext chain contains an instance of
    slink:VkExternalMemoryImageCreateInfoNV, its pname:handleTypes member
    must: only contain bits that are also in
    slink:VkExternalImageFormatPropertiesNV::pname:externalMemoryProperties::pname:compatibleHandleTypes,
    as returned by flink:vkGetPhysicalDeviceExternalImageFormatPropertiesNV
    with pname:format, pname:imageType, pname:tiling, pname:usage, and
    pname:flags equal to those in this structure, and with
    pname:externalHandleType equal to any one of the handle types specified
    in slink:VkExternalMemoryImageCreateInfoNV::pname:handleTypes
endif::VK_NV_external_memory+VK_NV_external_memory_capabilities[]
ifdef::VK_KHX_device_group[]
  * [[VUID-VkImageCreateInfo-physicalDeviceCount-01421]]
    If the logical device was created with
    slink:VkDeviceGroupDeviceCreateInfoKHX::pname:physicalDeviceCount equal
    to 1, pname:flags must: not contain
    ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_BIND_SFR_BIT_KHX
  * [[VUID-VkImageCreateInfo-flags-00992]]
    If pname:flags contains ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_BIND_SFR_BIT_KHX, then
    pname:mipLevels must: be one, pname:arrayLayers must: be one,
    pname:imageType must: be ename:VK_IMAGE_TYPE_2D, and pname:tiling must:
    be ename:VK_IMAGE_TILING_OPTIMAL
endif::VK_KHX_device_group[]
ifdef::VK_KHR_maintenance2[]
  * [[VUID-VkImageCreateInfo-flags-01572]]
    If pname:flags contains
    ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_BLOCK_TEXEL_VIEW_COMPATIBLE_BIT_KHR, then
    pname:format must: be a <<appendix-compressedtex-bc,block-compressed
    image format>>, an <<appendix-compressedtex-etc2, ETC compressed image
    format>>, or an <<appendix-compressedtex-astc, ASTC compressed image
    format>>.
  * [[VUID-VkImageCreateInfo-flags-01573]]
    If pname:flags contains
    ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_BLOCK_TEXEL_VIEW_COMPATIBLE_BIT_KHR, then
    pname:flags must: also contain ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_MUTABLE_FORMAT_BIT.
endif::VK_KHR_maintenance2[]
  * [[VUID-VkImageCreateInfo-initialLayout-00993]]
    pname:initialLayout must: be ename:VK_IMAGE_LAYOUT_UNDEFINED or
    ename:VK_IMAGE_LAYOUT_PREINITIALIZED.
ifdef::VK_KHR_external_memory,VK_NV_external_memory[]
  * [[VUID-VkImageCreateInfo-pNext-01443]]
    If the pname:pNext chain includes a
ifdef::VK_KHR_external_memory[slink:VkExternalMemoryImageCreateInfoKHR]
ifdef::VK_KHR_external_memory+VK_NV_external_memory[or]
ifdef::VK_NV_external_memory[slink:VkExternalMemoryImageCreateInfoNV]
    structure whose pname:handleTypes member is not `0`, pname:initialLayout
    must: be ename:VK_IMAGE_LAYOUT_UNDEFINED
endif::VK_KHR_external_memory,VK_NV_external_memory[]
ifdef::VK_KHR_sampler_ycbcr_conversion[]
  * [[VUID-VkImageCreateInfo-format-01574]]
    If the image pname:format is one of those listed in
    <<features-formats-requiring-sampler-ycbcr-conversion>>:
    ** pname:mipLevels must: be 1
    ** pname:samples must be ename:VK_SAMPLE_COUNT_1_BIT
    ** pname:imageType must: be ename:VK_IMAGE_TYPE_2D
    ** pname:arrayLayers must: be 1
  * [[VUID-VkImageCreateInfo-tiling-01575]]
    If pname:tiling is ename:VK_IMAGE_TILING_OPTIMAL, pname:format is a
    _multi-planar_ format, and
    sname:VkFormatProperties::pname:optimalTilingFeatures (as returned by
    fname:vkGetPhysicalDeviceFormatProperties with the same value of
    pname:format) does not include ename:VK_FORMAT_FEATURE_DISJOINT_BIT_KHR,
    pname:flags must: not contain ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_DISJOINT_BIT_KHR
  * [[VUID-VkImageCreateInfo-tiling-01576]]
    If pname:tiling is ename:VK_IMAGE_TILING_LINEAR, pname:format is a
    _multi-planar_ format, and
    sname:VkFormatProperties::pname:linearTilingFeatures (as returned by
    fname:vkGetPhysicalDeviceFormatProperties with the same value of
    pname:format) does not include ename:VK_FORMAT_FEATURE_DISJOINT_BIT_KHR,
    pname:flags must: not contain ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_DISJOINT_BIT_KHR
  * [[VUID-VkImageCreateInfo-format-01577]]
    If pname:format is not a _multi-planar_ format, and pname:flags does not
    include ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_ALIAS_BIT_KHR, pname:flags must: not
    contain ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_DISJOINT_BIT_KHR
endif::VK_KHR_sampler_ycbcr_conversion[]
ifdef::VK_EXT_sample_locations[]
  * [[VUID-VkImageCreateInfo-flags-01533]]
    If pname:flags contains
    ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_SAMPLE_LOCATIONS_COMPATIBLE_DEPTH_BIT_EXT
    pname:format must: be a depth or depth/stencil format
endif::VK_EXT_sample_locations[]
****

include::../validity/structs/VkImageCreateInfo.txt[]
--

ifdef::VK_NV_dedicated_allocation[]

[open,refpage='VkDedicatedAllocationImageCreateInfoNV',desc='Specify that an image is bound to a dedicated memory resource',type='structs']
--

If the pname:pNext chain includes a
sname:VkDedicatedAllocationImageCreateInfoNV structure, then that structure
includes an enable controlling whether the image will have a dedicated
memory allocation bound to it.

The sname:VkDedicatedAllocationImageCreateInfoNV structure is defined as:

include::../api/structs/VkDedicatedAllocationImageCreateInfoNV.txt[]

  * pname:sType is the type of this structure.
  * pname:pNext is `NULL` or a pointer to an extension-specific structure.
  * pname:dedicatedAllocation indicates whether the image will have a
    dedicated allocation bound to it.

[NOTE]
.Note
====
Using a dedicated allocation for color and depth/stencil attachments or
other large images may: improve performance on some devices.
====

.Valid Usage
****
  * [[VUID-VkDedicatedAllocationImageCreateInfoNV-dedicatedAllocation-00994]]
    If pname:dedicatedAllocation is ename:VK_TRUE,
    sname:VkImageCreateInfo::pname:flags must: not include
    ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_SPARSE_BINDING_BIT,
    ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_SPARSE_RESIDENCY_BIT, or
    ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_SPARSE_ALIASED_BIT
****

include::../validity/structs/VkDedicatedAllocationImageCreateInfoNV.txt[]
--

endif::VK_NV_dedicated_allocation[]

ifdef::VK_KHR_external_memory[]

[open,refpage='VkExternalMemoryImageCreateInfoKHR',desc='Specify that an image may be backed by external memory',type='structs']
--

To define a set of external memory handle types that may: be used as backing
store for an image, add a slink:VkExternalMemoryImageCreateInfoKHR structure
to the pname:pNext chain of the slink:VkImageCreateInfo structure.
The sname:VkExternalMemoryImageCreateInfoKHR structure is defined as:

include::../api/structs/VkExternalMemoryImageCreateInfoKHR.txt[]

  * pname:sType is the type of this structure.
  * pname:pNext is `NULL` or a pointer to an extension-specific structure.
  * pname:handleTypes is a bitmask of
    elink:VkExternalMemoryHandleTypeFlagBitsKHR specifying one or more
    external memory handle types.

include::../validity/structs/VkExternalMemoryImageCreateInfoKHR.txt[]
--

endif::VK_KHR_external_memory[]

ifdef::VK_NV_external_memory[]

[open,refpage='VkExternalMemoryImageCreateInfoNV',desc='Specify that an image may be backed by external memory',type='structs']
--

If the pname:pNext chain includes a sname:VkExternalMemoryImageCreateInfoNV
structure, then that structure defines a set of external memory handle types
that may: be used as backing store for the image.

The sname:VkExternalMemoryImageCreateInfoNV structure is defined as:

include::../api/structs/VkExternalMemoryImageCreateInfoNV.txt[]

  * pname:sType is the type of this structure.
  * pname:pNext is `NULL` or a pointer to an extension-specific structure.
  * pname:handleTypes is a bitmask of
    elink:VkExternalMemoryHandleTypeFlagBitsNV specifying one or more
    external memory handle types.

include::../validity/structs/VkExternalMemoryImageCreateInfoNV.txt[]
--

endif::VK_NV_external_memory[]

ifdef::VK_KHX_device_group[]

[open,refpage='VkImageSwapchainCreateInfoKHX',desc='Specify that an image will be bound to swapchain memory',type='structs']
--

If the pname:pNext chain of slink:VkImageCreateInfo includes a
sname:VkImageSwapchainCreateInfoKHX structure, then that structure includes
a swapchain handle indicating that the image will be bound to memory from
that swapchain.

The sname:VkImageSwapchainCreateInfoKHX structure is defined as:

include::../api/structs/VkImageSwapchainCreateInfoKHX.txt[]

  * pname:sType is the type of this structure.
  * pname:pNext is `NULL` or a pointer to an extension-specific structure.
  * pname:swapchain is dlink:VK_NULL_HANDLE or a handle of a swapchain that
    the image will be bound to.

.Valid Usage
****
  * [[VUID-VkImageSwapchainCreateInfoKHX-swapchain-00995]]
    If pname:swapchain is not dlink:VK_NULL_HANDLE, the fields of
    slink:VkImageCreateInfo must: match the
    <<swapchain-wsi-image-create-info, implied image creation parameters>>
    of the swapchain
****

include::../validity/structs/VkImageSwapchainCreateInfoKHX.txt[]
--

endif::VK_KHX_device_group[]

ifdef::VK_KHR_image_format_list[]

// refBegin VkImageFormatListCreateInfoKHR Specify that an image can: be used with a particular set of formats

If the pname:pNext list of slink:VkImageCreateInfo includes a
sname:VkImageFormatListCreateInfoKHR structure, then that structure contains
a list of all formats that can: be used when creating views of this image.

The sname:VkImageFormatListCreateInfoKHR structure is defined as:

include::../api/structs/VkImageFormatListCreateInfoKHR.txt[]

  * pname:sType is the type of this structure.
  * pname:pNext is `NULL` or a pointer to an extension-specific structure.
  * pname:viewFormatCount is the number of entries in the pname:pViewFormats
    array.
  * pname:pViewFormats is an array which lists of all formats which can: be
    used when creating views of this image.

If pname:viewFormatCount is zero, pname:pViewFormats is ignored and the
image is created as if the sname:VkImageFormatListCreateInfoKHR structure
were not included in the pname:pNext list of slink:VkImageCreateInfo.

.Valid Usage
****
  * [[VUID-VkImageFormatListCreateInfoKHR-viewFormatCount-01578]]
    If pname:viewFormatCount is not `0`, all of the formats in the
    pname:pViewFormats array must: be compatible with the format specified
    in the pname:format field of sname:VkImageCreateInfo, as described in
    the <<resources-image-views-compatibility,compatibility table>>.
  * [[VUID-VkImageFormatListCreateInfoKHR-flags-01579]]
    If sname:VkImageCreateInfo::pname:flags does not contain
    ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_MUTABLE_FORMAT_BIT, pname:viewFormatCount must: be
    `0` or `1`.
  * [[VUID-VkImageFormatListCreateInfoKHR-viewFormatCount-01580]]
    If pname:viewFormatCount is not `0`,
    sname:VkImageCreateInfo::pname:format must: be in pname:pViewFormats.
****

include::../validity/structs/VkImageFormatListCreateInfoKHR.txt[]

endif::VK_KHR_image_format_list[]

[open,refpage='VkImageUsageFlagBits',desc='Bitmask specifying intended usage of an image',type='enums']
--

Bits which can: be set in slink:VkImageCreateInfo::pname:usage, specifying
intended usage of an image, are:

include::../api/enums/VkImageUsageFlagBits.txt[]

  * ename:VK_IMAGE_USAGE_TRANSFER_SRC_BIT specifies that the image can: be
    used as the source of a transfer command.
  * ename:VK_IMAGE_USAGE_TRANSFER_DST_BIT specifies that the image can: be
    used as the destination of a transfer command.
  * ename:VK_IMAGE_USAGE_SAMPLED_BIT specifies that the image can: be used
    to create a sname:VkImageView suitable for occupying a
    sname:VkDescriptorSet slot either of type
    ename:VK_DESCRIPTOR_TYPE_SAMPLED_IMAGE or
    ename:VK_DESCRIPTOR_TYPE_COMBINED_IMAGE_SAMPLER, and be sampled by a
    shader.
  * ename:VK_IMAGE_USAGE_STORAGE_BIT specifies that the image can: be used
    to create a sname:VkImageView suitable for occupying a
    sname:VkDescriptorSet slot of type
    ename:VK_DESCRIPTOR_TYPE_STORAGE_IMAGE.
  * ename:VK_IMAGE_USAGE_COLOR_ATTACHMENT_BIT specifies that the image can:
    be used to create a sname:VkImageView suitable for use as a color or
    resolve attachment in a sname:VkFramebuffer.
  * ename:VK_IMAGE_USAGE_DEPTH_STENCIL_ATTACHMENT_BIT specifies that the
    image can: be used to create a sname:VkImageView suitable for use as a
    depth/stencil attachment in a sname:VkFramebuffer.
  * ename:VK_IMAGE_USAGE_TRANSIENT_ATTACHMENT_BIT specifies that the memory
    bound to this image will have been allocated with the
    ename:VK_MEMORY_PROPERTY_LAZILY_ALLOCATED_BIT (see <<memory>> for more
    detail).
    This bit can: be set for any image that can: be used to create a
    sname:VkImageView suitable for use as a color, resolve, depth/stencil,
    or input attachment.
  * ename:VK_IMAGE_USAGE_INPUT_ATTACHMENT_BIT specifies that the image can:
    be used to create a sname:VkImageView suitable for occupying
    sname:VkDescriptorSet slot of type
    ename:VK_DESCRIPTOR_TYPE_INPUT_ATTACHMENT; be read from a shader as an
    input attachment; and be used as an input attachment in a framebuffer.

--

[open,refpage='VkImageCreateFlagBits',desc='Bitmask specifying additional parameters of an image',type='enums']
--

Bits which can: be set in slink:VkImageCreateInfo::pname:flags, specifying
additional parameters of an image, are:

include::../api/enums/VkImageCreateFlagBits.txt[]

  * ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_SPARSE_BINDING_BIT specifies that the image will
    be backed using sparse memory binding.
  * ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_SPARSE_RESIDENCY_BIT specifies that the image can:
    be partially backed using sparse memory binding.
    Images created with this flag must: also be created with the
    ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_SPARSE_BINDING_BIT flag.
  * ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_SPARSE_ALIASED_BIT specifies that the image will
    be backed using sparse memory binding with memory ranges that might also
    simultaneously be backing another image (or another portion of the same
    image).
    Images created with this flag must: also be created with the
    ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_SPARSE_BINDING_BIT flag
  * ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_MUTABLE_FORMAT_BIT specifies that the image can:
    be used to create a sname:VkImageView with a different format from the
    image.
ifdef::VK_KHR_sampler_ycbcr_conversion[]
    For <<features-formats-requiring-sampler-ycbcr-conversion,multi-planar>>
    formats, ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_MUTABLE_FORMAT_BIT indicates that a
    sname:VkImageView can be created of a _plane_ of the image.
endif::VK_KHR_sampler_ycbcr_conversion[]
  * ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_CUBE_COMPATIBLE_BIT specifies that the image can:
    be used to create a sname:VkImageView of type
    ename:VK_IMAGE_VIEW_TYPE_CUBE or ename:VK_IMAGE_VIEW_TYPE_CUBE_ARRAY.
ifdef::VK_KHR_maintenance1[]
  * ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_2D_ARRAY_COMPATIBLE_BIT_KHR specifies that the
    image can: be used to create a sname:VkImageView of type
    ename:VK_IMAGE_VIEW_TYPE_2D or ename:VK_IMAGE_VIEW_TYPE_2D_ARRAY.
endif::VK_KHR_maintenance1[]
ifdef::VK_KHX_device_group[]
  * ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_BIND_SFR_BIT_KHX specifies that the image can: be
    used with a non-zero value of the pname:SFRRectCount member of a
    slink:VkBindImageMemoryDeviceGroupInfoKHX structure passed into
    flink:vkBindImageMemory2KHR.
    This flag also has the effect of making the image use the standard
    sparse image block dimensions.
endif::VK_KHX_device_group[]
ifdef::VK_KHR_maintenance2[]
  * ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_BLOCK_TEXEL_VIEW_COMPATIBLE_BIT_KHR indicates that
    the image having a compressed format can: be used to create a
    sname:VkImageView with an uncompressed format where each texel in the
    image view corresponds to a compressed texel block of the image.
  * ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_EXTENDED_USAGE_BIT_KHR indicates that the image
    can: be created with usage flags that are not supported for the format
    the image is created with but are supported for at least one format a
    sname:VkImageView created from the image can: have.
endif::VK_KHR_maintenance2[]
ifdef::VK_KHR_sampler_ycbcr_conversion[]
  * ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_DISJOINT_BIT_KHR indicates that an image with a
    <<features-formats-requiring-sampler-ycbcr-conversion,multi-planar
    format>> must: have each plane separately bound to memory, rather than
    having a single memory binding for the whole image; the presence of this
    bit distinguishes a _disjoint image_ from an image without this bit set.
endif::VK_KHR_sampler_ycbcr_conversion[]
ifdef::VK_KHR_bind_memory2[]
  * ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_ALIAS_BIT_KHR indicates that two images created
    with the same creation parameters and aliased to the same memory can:
    interpret the contents of the memory consistently with each other,
    subject to the rules described in the <<resources-memory-aliasing,Memory
    Aliasing>> section.
ifdef::VK_KHR_sampler_ycbcr_conversion[]
    This flag further indicates that each plane of a _disjoint_ image can:
    share an in-memory non-linear representation with single-plane images,
    and that a single-plane image can: share an in-memory non-linear
    representation with a plane of a multi-planar disjoint image, according
    to the rules in <<features-formats-compatible-planes>>.
endif::VK_KHR_sampler_ycbcr_conversion[]
ifdef::VK_KHR_external_memory,VK_NV_external_memory[]
    If the pname:pNext chain includes a
ifdef::VK_KHR_external_memory[slink:VkExternalMemoryImageCreateInfoKHR]
ifdef::VK_KHR_external_memory+VK_NV_external_memory[or]
ifdef::VK_NV_external_memory[slink:VkExternalMemoryImageCreateInfoNV]
    structure whose pname:handleTypes member is not `0`, it is as if
    ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_ALIAS_BIT_KHR is set.
endif::VK_KHR_external_memory,VK_NV_external_memory[]
endif::VK_KHR_bind_memory2[]
ifdef::VK_EXT_sample_locations[]
  * ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_SAMPLE_LOCATIONS_COMPATIBLE_DEPTH_BIT_EXT
    specifies that an image with a depth or depth/stencil format can: be
    used with custom sample locations when used as a depth/stencil
    attachment.
endif::VK_EXT_sample_locations[]

If any of the bits ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_SPARSE_BINDING_BIT,
ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_SPARSE_RESIDENCY_BIT, or
ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_SPARSE_ALIASED_BIT are set,
ename:VK_IMAGE_USAGE_TRANSIENT_ATTACHMENT_BIT must: not also be set.

See <<sparsememory-sparseresourcefeatures,Sparse Resource Features>> and
<<sparsememory-physicalfeatures,Sparse Physical Device Features>> for more
details.

--

[open,refpage='VkImageType',desc='Specifies the type of an image object',type='enums']
--

Possible values of slink:VkImageCreateInfo::pname:imageType, specifying the
basic dimensionality of an image, are:

include::../api/enums/VkImageType.txt[]

  * ename:VK_IMAGE_TYPE_1D specifies a one-dimensional image.
  * ename:VK_IMAGE_TYPE_2D specifies a two-dimensional image.
  * ename:VK_IMAGE_TYPE_3D specifies a three-dimensional image.

--

[open,refpage='VkImageTiling',desc='Specifies the tiling arrangement of data in an image',type='enums']
--

Possible values of slink:VkImageCreateInfo::pname:tiling, specifying the
tiling arrangement of data elements in an image, are:

include::../api/enums/VkImageTiling.txt[]

  * ename:VK_IMAGE_TILING_OPTIMAL specifies optimal tiling (texels are laid
    out in an implementation-dependent arrangement, for more optimal memory
    access).
  * ename:VK_IMAGE_TILING_LINEAR specifies linear tiling (texels are laid
    out in memory in row-major order, possibly with some padding on each
    row).

--

[open,refpage='vkGetImageSubresourceLayout',desc='Retrieve information about an image subresource',type='protos']
--

To query the host access layout of an image subresource, for an image
created with linear tiling, call:

include::../api/protos/vkGetImageSubresourceLayout.txt[]

  * pname:device is the logical device that owns the image.
  * pname:image is the image whose layout is being queried.
  * pname:pSubresource is a pointer to a slink:VkImageSubresource structure
    selecting a specific image for the image subresource.
  * pname:pLayout points to a slink:VkSubresourceLayout structure in which
    the layout is returned.

ifdef::VK_KHR_sampler_ycbcr_conversion[]
If the elink:VkFormat of pname:image is a
<<features-formats-requiring-sampler-ycbcr-conversion,multi-planar format>>,
fname:vkGetImageSubresourceLayout describes one plane of the image.
endif::VK_KHR_sampler_ycbcr_conversion[]

flink:vkGetImageSubresourceLayout is invariant for the lifetime of a single
image.

.Valid Usage
****
  * [[VUID-vkGetImageSubresourceLayout-image-00996]]
    pname:image must: have been created with pname:tiling equal to
    ename:VK_IMAGE_TILING_LINEAR
  * [[VUID-vkGetImageSubresourceLayout-aspectMask-00997]]
    The pname:aspectMask member of pname:pSubresource must: only have a
    single bit set
  * The pname:mipLevel member of pname:pSubresource must: be less than the
    pname:mipLevels specified in slink:VkImageCreateInfo when pname:image
    was created
  * The pname:arrayLayer member of pname:pSubresource must: be less than the
    pname:arrayLayers specified in slink:VkImageCreateInfo when pname:image
    was created
ifdef::VK_KHR_sampler_ycbcr_conversion[]
  * [[VUID-vkGetImageSubresourceLayout-format-01581]]
    If the pname:format of pname:image is a
    <<features-formats-requiring-sampler-ycbcr-conversion,multi-planar
    format>> with two planes, the pname:aspectMask member of
    pname:pSubresource must: be ename:VK_IMAGE_ASPECT_PLANE_0_BIT_KHR or
    ename:VK_IMAGE_ASPECT_PLANE_1_BIT_KHR
  * [[VUID-vkGetImageSubresourceLayout-format-01582]]
    If the pname:format of pname:image is a
    <<features-formats-requiring-sampler-ycbcr-conversion,multi-planar
    format>> with three planes, the pname:aspectMask member of
    pname:pSubresource must: be ename:VK_IMAGE_ASPECT_PLANE_0_BIT_KHR,
    ename:VK_IMAGE_ASPECT_PLANE_1_BIT_KHR or
    ename:VK_IMAGE_ASPECT_PLANE_2_BIT_KHR
endif::VK_KHR_sampler_ycbcr_conversion[]
****

include::../validity/protos/vkGetImageSubresourceLayout.txt[]
--

[open,refpage='VkImageSubresource',desc='Structure specifying a image subresource',type='structs']
--

The sname:VkImageSubresource structure is defined as:

include::../api/structs/VkImageSubresource.txt[]

  * pname:aspectMask is a elink:VkImageAspectFlags selecting the image
    _aspect_.
  * pname:mipLevel selects the mipmap level.
  * pname:arrayLayer selects the array layer.

include::../validity/structs/VkImageSubresource.txt[]
--

[open,refpage='VkSubresourceLayout',desc='Structure specifying subresource layout',type='structs']
--

Information about the layout of the image subresource is returned in a
sname:VkSubresourceLayout structure:

include::../api/structs/VkSubresourceLayout.txt[]

  * pname:offset is the byte offset from the start of the image where the
    image subresource begins.
  * pname:size is the size in bytes of the image subresource.
    pname:size includes any extra memory that is required based on
    pname:rowPitch.
  * pname:rowPitch describes the number of bytes between each row of texels
    in an image.
  * pname:arrayPitch describes the number of bytes between each array layer
    of an image.
  * pname:depthPitch describes the number of bytes between each slice of 3D
    image.

For images created with linear tiling, pname:rowPitch, pname:arrayPitch and
pname:depthPitch describe the layout of the image subresource in linear
memory.
For uncompressed formats, pname:rowPitch is the number of bytes between
texels with the same x coordinate in adjacent rows (y coordinates differ by
one).
pname:arrayPitch is the number of bytes between texels with the same x and y
coordinate in adjacent array layers of the image (array layer values differ
by one).
pname:depthPitch is the number of bytes between texels with the same x and y
coordinate in adjacent slices of a 3D image (z coordinates differ by one).
Expressed as an addressing formula, the starting byte of a texel in the
image subresource has address:

[source,c]
---------------------------------------------------
// (x,y,z,layer) are in texel coordinates
address(x,y,z,layer) = layer*arrayPitch + z*depthPitch + y*rowPitch + x*elementSize + offset
---------------------------------------------------

For compressed formats, the pname:rowPitch is the number of bytes between
compressed texel blocks in adjacent rows.
pname:arrayPitch is the number of bytes between compressed texel blocks in
adjacent array layers.
pname:depthPitch is the number of bytes between compressed texel blocks in
adjacent slices of a 3D image.

[source,c]
---------------------------------------------------
// (x,y,z,layer) are in compressed texel block coordinates
address(x,y,z,layer) = layer*arrayPitch + z*depthPitch + y*rowPitch + x*compressedTexelBlockByteSize + offset;
---------------------------------------------------

pname:arrayPitch is undefined for images that were not created as arrays.
pname:depthPitch is defined only for 3D images.

For
ifdef::VK_KHR_sampler_ycbcr_conversion[]
_single-plane_
endif::VK_KHR_sampler_ycbcr_conversion[]
color formats, the pname:aspectMask member of sname:VkImageSubresource must:
be ename:VK_IMAGE_ASPECT_COLOR_BIT.
For depth/stencil formats, pname:aspectMask must: be either
ename:VK_IMAGE_ASPECT_DEPTH_BIT or ename:VK_IMAGE_ASPECT_STENCIL_BIT.
On implementations that store depth and stencil aspects separately, querying
each of these image subresource layouts will return a different pname:offset
and pname:size representing the region of memory used for that aspect.
On implementations that store depth and stencil aspects interleaved, the
same pname:offset and pname:size are returned and represent the interleaved
memory allocation.

ifdef::VK_KHR_sampler_ycbcr_conversion[]
For <<features-formats-requiring-sampler-ycbcr-conversion,multi-planar
formats>>, the pname:aspectMask member of sname:VkImageSubresource must: be
ename:VK_IMAGE_ASPECT_PLANE_0_BIT_KHR,
ename:VK_IMAGE_ASPECT_PLANE_1_BIT_KHR, or (for 3-plane formats only)
ename:VK_IMAGE_ASPECT_PLANE_2_BIT_KHR.
Querying each of these image subresource layouts will return a different
pname:offset and pname:size representing the region of memory used for that
plane.
endif::VK_KHR_sampler_ycbcr_conversion[]

include::../validity/structs/VkSubresourceLayout.txt[]
--

[open,refpage='vkDestroyImage',desc='Destroy an image object',type='protos']
--

To destroy an image, call:

include::../api/protos/vkDestroyImage.txt[]

  * pname:device is the logical device that destroys the image.
  * pname:image is the image to destroy.
  * pname:pAllocator controls host memory allocation as described in the
    <<memory-allocation, Memory Allocation>> chapter.

.Valid Usage
****
  * [[VUID-vkDestroyImage-image-01000]]
    All submitted commands that refer to pname:image, either directly or via
    a sname:VkImageView, must: have completed execution
  * [[VUID-vkDestroyImage-image-01001]]
    If sname:VkAllocationCallbacks were provided when pname:image was
    created, a compatible set of callbacks must: be provided here
  * [[VUID-vkDestroyImage-image-01002]]
    If no sname:VkAllocationCallbacks were provided when pname:image was
    created, pname:pAllocator must: be `NULL`
****

include::../validity/protos/vkDestroyImage.txt[]
--


[[resources-image-layouts]]
== Image Layouts

Images are stored in implementation-dependent opaque layouts in memory.
Each layout has limitations on what kinds of operations are supported for
image subresources using the layout.
At any given time, the data representing an image subresource in memory
exists in a particular layout which is determined by the most recent layout
transition that was performed on that image subresource.
Applications have control over which layout each image subresource uses, and
can: transition an image subresource from one layout to another.
Transitions can: happen with an image memory barrier, included as part of a
fname:vkCmdPipelineBarrier or a fname:vkCmdWaitEvents command buffer command
(see <<synchronization-image-memory-barriers>>), or as part of a subpass
dependency within a render pass (see sname:VkSubpassDependency).
The image layout is per-image subresource, and separate image subresources
of the same image can: be in different layouts at the same time with one
exception - depth and stencil aspects of a given image subresource must:
always be in the same layout.

[NOTE]
.Note
====
Each layout may: offer optimal performance for a specific usage of image
memory.
For example, an image with a layout of
ename:VK_IMAGE_LAYOUT_COLOR_ATTACHMENT_OPTIMAL may: provide optimal
performance for use as a color attachment, but be unsupported for use in
transfer commands.
Applications can: transition an image subresource from one layout to another
in order to achieve optimal performance when the image subresource is used
for multiple kinds of operations.
After initialization, applications need not use any layout other than the
general layout, though this may: produce suboptimal performance on some
implementations.
====

Upon creation, all image subresources of an image are initially in the same
layout, where that layout is selected by the
sname:VkImageCreateInfo::pname:initialLayout member.
The pname:initialLayout must: be either ename:VK_IMAGE_LAYOUT_UNDEFINED or
ename:VK_IMAGE_LAYOUT_PREINITIALIZED.
If it is ename:VK_IMAGE_LAYOUT_PREINITIALIZED, then the image data can: be
preinitialized by the host while using this layout, and the transition away
from this layout will preserve that data.
If it is ename:VK_IMAGE_LAYOUT_UNDEFINED, then the contents of the data are
considered to be undefined, and the transition away from this layout is not
guaranteed to preserve that data.
For either of these initial layouts, any image subresources must: be
transitioned to another layout before they are accessed by the device.

Host access to image memory is only well-defined for images created with
ename:VK_IMAGE_TILING_LINEAR tiling and for image subresources of those
images which are currently in either the
ename:VK_IMAGE_LAYOUT_PREINITIALIZED or ename:VK_IMAGE_LAYOUT_GENERAL
layout.
Calling flink:vkGetImageSubresourceLayout for a linear image returns a
subresource layout mapping that is valid for either of those image layouts.

[open,refpage='VkImageLayout',desc='Layout of image and image subresources',type='enums']
--

The set of image layouts consists of:

include::../api/enums/VkImageLayout.txt[]

The type(s) of device access supported by each layout are:

  * ename:VK_IMAGE_LAYOUT_UNDEFINED does not support device access.
    This layout must: only be used as the pname:initialLayout member of
    sname:VkImageCreateInfo or sname:VkAttachmentDescription, or as the
    pname:oldLayout in an image transition.
    When transitioning out of this layout, the contents of the memory are
    not guaranteed to be preserved.
  * ename:VK_IMAGE_LAYOUT_PREINITIALIZED does not support device access.
    This layout must: only be used as the pname:initialLayout member of
    sname:VkImageCreateInfo or sname:VkAttachmentDescription, or as the
    pname:oldLayout in an image transition.
    When transitioning out of this layout, the contents of the memory are
    preserved.
    This layout is intended to be used as the initial layout for an image
    whose contents are written by the host, and hence the data can: be
    written to memory immediately, without first executing a layout
    transition.
    Currently, ename:VK_IMAGE_LAYOUT_PREINITIALIZED is only useful with
    ename:VK_IMAGE_TILING_LINEAR images because there is not a standard
    layout defined for ename:VK_IMAGE_TILING_OPTIMAL images.
  * ename:VK_IMAGE_LAYOUT_GENERAL supports all types of device access.
  * ename:VK_IMAGE_LAYOUT_COLOR_ATTACHMENT_OPTIMAL must: only be used as a
    color or resolve attachment in a sname:VkFramebuffer.
    This layout is valid only for image subresources of images created with
    the ename:VK_IMAGE_USAGE_COLOR_ATTACHMENT_BIT usage bit enabled.
  * ename:VK_IMAGE_LAYOUT_DEPTH_STENCIL_ATTACHMENT_OPTIMAL must: only be
    used as a depth/stencil attachment in a sname:VkFramebuffer.
    This layout is valid only for image subresources of images created with
    the ename:VK_IMAGE_USAGE_DEPTH_STENCIL_ATTACHMENT_BIT usage bit enabled.
  * ename:VK_IMAGE_LAYOUT_DEPTH_STENCIL_READ_ONLY_OPTIMAL must: only be used
    as a read-only depth/stencil attachment in a sname:VkFramebuffer and/or
    as a read-only image in a shader (which can: be read as a sampled image,
    combined image/sampler and/or input attachment).
    This layout is valid only for image subresources of images created with
    the ename:VK_IMAGE_USAGE_DEPTH_STENCIL_ATTACHMENT_BIT usage bit enabled.
    Only image subresources of images created with
    ename:VK_IMAGE_USAGE_SAMPLED_BIT can: be used as a sampled image or
    combined image/sampler in a shader.
    Similarly, only image subresources of images created with
    ename:VK_IMAGE_USAGE_INPUT_ATTACHMENT_BIT can: be used as input
    attachments.
ifdef::VK_KHR_maintenance2[]
  * ename:VK_IMAGE_LAYOUT_DEPTH_READ_ONLY_STENCIL_ATTACHMENT_OPTIMAL_KHR:
    must: only be used as a depth/stencil attachment in a
    sname:VkFramebuffer, where the depth aspect is read-only, and/or as a
    read-only image in a shader (which can: be read as a sampled image,
    combined image/sampler and/or input attachment) where only the depth
    aspect is accessed.
    This layout is valid only for image subresources of images created with
    the ename:VK_IMAGE_USAGE_DEPTH_STENCIL_ATTACHMENT_BIT usage bit enabled.
    Only image subresources of images created with
    ename:VK_IMAGE_USAGE_SAMPLED_BIT can: be used as a sampled image or
    combined image/sampler in a shader.
    Similarly, only image subresources of images created with
    ename:VK_IMAGE_USAGE_INPUT_ATTACHMENT_BIT can: be used as input
    attachments.
  * ename:VK_IMAGE_LAYOUT_DEPTH_ATTACHMENT_STENCIL_READ_ONLY_OPTIMAL_KHR:
    must: only be used as a depth/stencil attachment in a
    sname:VkFramebuffer, where the stencil aspect is read-only, and/or as a
    read-only image in a shader (which can: be read as a sampled image,
    combined image/sampler and/or input attachment) where only the stencil
    aspect is accessed.
    This layout is valid only for image subresources of images created with
    the ename:VK_IMAGE_USAGE_DEPTH_STENCIL_ATTACHMENT_BIT usage bit enabled.
    Only image subresources of images created with
    ename:VK_IMAGE_USAGE_SAMPLED_BIT can: be used as a sampled image or
    combined image/sampler in a shader.
    Similarly, only image subresources of images created with
    ename:VK_IMAGE_USAGE_INPUT_ATTACHMENT_BIT can: be used as input
    attachments.
endif::VK_KHR_maintenance2[]
  * ename:VK_IMAGE_LAYOUT_SHADER_READ_ONLY_OPTIMAL must: only be used as a
    read-only image in a shader (which can: be read as a sampled image,
    combined image/sampler and/or input attachment).
    This layout is valid only for image subresources of images created with
    the ename:VK_IMAGE_USAGE_SAMPLED_BIT or
    ename:VK_IMAGE_USAGE_INPUT_ATTACHMENT_BIT usage bit enabled.
  * ename:VK_IMAGE_LAYOUT_TRANSFER_SRC_OPTIMAL must: only be used as a
    source image of a transfer command (see the definition of
    <<synchronization-pipeline-stages-transfer,
    ename:VK_PIPELINE_STAGE_TRANSFER_BIT>>).
    This layout is valid only for image subresources of images created with
    the ename:VK_IMAGE_USAGE_TRANSFER_SRC_BIT usage bit enabled.
  * ename:VK_IMAGE_LAYOUT_TRANSFER_DST_OPTIMAL must: only be used as a
    destination image of a transfer command.
    This layout is valid only for image subresources of images created with
    the ename:VK_IMAGE_USAGE_TRANSFER_DST_BIT usage bit enabled.
ifdef::VK_KHR_swapchain[]
  * ename:VK_IMAGE_LAYOUT_PRESENT_SRC_KHR must: only be used for presenting
    a presentable image for display.
    A swapchain's image must: be transitioned to this layout before calling
    flink:vkQueuePresentKHR, and must: be transitioned away from this layout
    after calling flink:vkAcquireNextImageKHR.
ifdef::VK_KHR_shared_presentable_image[]
  * ename:VK_IMAGE_LAYOUT_SHARED_PRESENT_KHR is valid only for shared
    presentable images, and must: be used for any usage the image supports.
endif::VK_KHR_shared_presentable_image[]
endif::VK_KHR_swapchain[]

For each mechanism of accessing an image in the API, there is a parameter or
structure member that controls the image layout used to access the image.
For transfer commands, this is a parameter to the command (see <<clears>>
and <<copies>>).
For use as a framebuffer attachment, this is a member in the substructures
of the sname:VkRenderPassCreateInfo (see <<renderpass,Render Pass>>).
For use in a descriptor set, this is a member in the
sname:VkDescriptorImageInfo structure (see <<descriptorsets-updates>>).
At the time that any command buffer command accessing an image executes on
any queue, the layouts of the image subresources that are accessed must: all
match the layout specified via the API controlling those accesses.

The image layout of each image subresource must: be well-defined at each
point in the image subresource's lifetime.
This means that when performing a layout transition on the image
subresource, the old layout value must: either equal the current layout of
the image subresource (at the time the transition executes), or else be
ename:VK_IMAGE_LAYOUT_UNDEFINED (implying that the contents of the image
subresource need not be preserved).
The new layout used in a transition must: not be
ename:VK_IMAGE_LAYOUT_UNDEFINED or ename:VK_IMAGE_LAYOUT_PREINITIALIZED.

ifdef::VK_EXT_sample_locations[]

The image layout of each image subresource of a depth/stencil image created
with ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_SAMPLE_LOCATIONS_COMPATIBLE_DEPTH_BIT_EXT is
dependent on the last sample locations used to render to the image
subresource as a depth/stencil attachment, thus applications must: provide
the same sample locations that were last used to render to the given image
subresource whenever a layout transition of the image subresource happens,
otherwise the contents of the depth aspect of the image subresource become
undefined.

In addition, depth reads from a depth/stencil attachment referring to an
image subresource range of a depth/stencil image created with
ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_SAMPLE_LOCATIONS_COMPATIBLE_DEPTH_BIT_EXT using
different sample locations than what have been last used to perform depth
writes to the image subresources of the same image subresource range produce
undefined results.

Similarly, depth writes to a depth/stencil attachment referring to an image
subresource range of a depth/stencil image created with
ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_SAMPLE_LOCATIONS_COMPATIBLE_DEPTH_BIT_EXT using
different sample locations than what have been last used to perform depth
writes to the image subresources of the same image subresource range make
the contents of the depth aspect of those image subresources undefined.

endif::VK_EXT_sample_locations[]

--


[[resources-image-views]]
== Image Views

[open,refpage='VkImageView',desc='Opaque handle to a image view object',type='handles']
--

Image objects are not directly accessed by pipeline shaders for reading or
writing image data.
Instead, _image views_ representing contiguous ranges of the image
subresources and containing additional metadata are used for that purpose.
Views must: be created on images of compatible types, and must: represent a
valid subset of image subresources.

Image views are represented by sname:VkImageView handles:

include::../api/handles/VkImageView.txt[]

--

[open,refpage='VkImageViewType',desc='Image view types',type='enums']
--

The types of image views that can: be created are:

include::../api/enums/VkImageViewType.txt[]

The exact image view type is partially implicit, based on the image's type
and sample count, as well as the view creation parameters as described in
the <<resources-image-views-compatibility,image view compatibility table>>
for flink:vkCreateImageView.
This table also shows which SPIR-V code:OpTypeImage code:Dim and
code:Arrayed parameters correspond to each image view type.

--

[open,refpage='vkCreateImageView',desc='Create an image view from an existing image',type='protos']
--

To create an image view, call:

include::../api/protos/vkCreateImageView.txt[]

  * pname:device is the logical device that creates the image view.
  * pname:pCreateInfo is a pointer to an instance of the
    sname:VkImageViewCreateInfo structure containing parameters to be used
    to create the image view.
  * pname:pAllocator controls host memory allocation as described in the
    <<memory-allocation, Memory Allocation>> chapter.
  * pname:pView points to a sname:VkImageView handle in which the resulting
    image view object is returned.

Some of the image creation parameters are inherited by the view.
In particular, image view creation inherits the implicit parameter
pname:usage specifying the allowed usages of the image view that, by
default, takes the value of the corresponding pname:usage parameter
specified in sname:VkImageCreateInfo at image creation time.
ifdef::VK_KHR_maintenance2[]
This implicit parameter can: be overriden by chaining a
slink:VkImageViewUsageCreateInfoKHR structure through the pname:pNext member
to sname:VkImageViewCreateInfo as described later in this section.
endif::VK_KHR_maintenance2[]

The remaining parameters are contained in the pname:pCreateInfo.

include::../validity/protos/vkCreateImageView.txt[]
--

[open,refpage='VkImageViewCreateInfo',desc='Structure specifying parameters of a newly created image view',type='structs']
--

The sname:VkImageViewCreateInfo structure is defined as:

include::../api/structs/VkImageViewCreateInfo.txt[]

  * pname:sType is the type of this structure.
  * pname:pNext is `NULL` or a pointer to an extension-specific structure.
  * pname:flags is reserved for future use.
  * pname:image is a sname:VkImage on which the view will be created.
  * pname:viewType is an elink:VkImageViewType value specifying the type of
    the image view.
  * pname:format is a elink:VkFormat describing the format and type used to
    interpret data elements in the image.
  * pname:components is a slink:VkComponentMapping specifies a remapping of
    color components (or of depth or stencil components after they have been
    converted into color components).
  * pname:subresourceRange is a slink:VkImageSubresourceRange selecting the
    set of mipmap levels and array layers to be accessible to the view.

If pname:image was created with the ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_MUTABLE_FORMAT_BIT
flag,
ifdef::VK_KHR_sampler_ycbcr_conversion[]
and if the pname:format of the image is not
<<features-formats-requiring-sampler-ycbcr-conversion,multi-planar>>,
endif::VK_KHR_sampler_ycbcr_conversion[]
pname:format can: be different from the image's format, but if
ifdef::VK_KHR_maintenance2[]
pname:image was created without the
ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_BLOCK_TEXEL_VIEW_COMPATIBLE_BIT_KHR flag and
endif::VK_KHR_maintenance2[]
they are not equal they must: be _compatible_.
Image format compatibility is defined in the
<<features-formats-compatibility-classes,Format Compatibility Classes>>
section.
Views of compatible formats will have the same mapping between texel
coordinates and memory locations irrespective of the pname:format, with only
the interpretation of the bit pattern changing.

[NOTE]
.Note
====
Values intended to be used with one view format may: not be exactly
preserved when written or read through a different format.
For example, an integer value that happens to have the bit pattern of a
floating point denorm or NaN may: be flushed or canonicalized when written
or read through a view with a floating point format.
Similarly, a value written through a signed normalized format that has a bit
pattern exactly equal to [eq]#-2^b^# may: be changed to [eq]#-2^b^ {plus} 1#
as described in <<fundamentals-fixedfpconv,Conversion from Normalized
Fixed-Point to Floating-Point>>.
====

ifdef::VK_KHR_maintenance2[]
If pname:image was created with the
ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_BLOCK_TEXEL_VIEW_COMPATIBLE_BIT_KHR flag, pname:format
must: be _compatible_ with the image's format as described above, or must:
be an uncompressed format in which case it must: be size-compatible with the
image's format, meaning that the element size of the uncompressed format
must: equal the element size (compressed texel block size) of the image's
format.
In this case the resulting image view's texel dimensions equal the
dimensions of the selected mip level divided by the compressed texel block
size and rounded up.
endif::VK_KHR_maintenance2[]

ifdef::VK_KHR_sampler_ycbcr_conversion[]
If the image view is to be used with a sampler which supports
<<samplers-YCbCr-conversion,sampler Y'C~B~C~R~ conversion>>, an _identically
defined object_ of type slink:VkSamplerYcbcrConversionKHR to that used to
create the sampler must: be passed to flink:vkCreateImageView in a
slink:VkSamplerYcbcrConversionInfoKHR added to the pname:pNext chain of
slink:VkImageViewCreateInfo.

If the image has a
<<features-formats-requiring-sampler-ycbcr-conversion,multi-planar>>
pname:format and pname:subresourceRange.aspectMask is
ename:VK_IMAGE_ASPECT_COLOR_BIT, pname:format must: be identical to the
image pname:format, and the sampler to be used with the image view must:
enable <<samplers-YCbCr-conversion,sampler Y'C~B~C~R~ conversion>>.

If pname:image was created with the ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_MUTABLE_FORMAT_BIT
and the image has a
<<features-formats-requiring-sampler-ycbcr-conversion,multi-planar>>
pname:format, and if pname:subresourceRange.aspectMask is
ename:VK_IMAGE_ASPECT_PLANE_0_BIT_KHR,
ename:VK_IMAGE_ASPECT_PLANE_1_BIT_KHR, or
ename:VK_IMAGE_ASPECT_PLANE_2_BIT_KHR, pname:format must: be
<<features-formats-compatible-planes,compatible>> with the corresponding
plane of the image, and the sampler to be used with the image view must: not
enable <<samplers-YCbCr-conversion,sampler Y'C~B~C~R~ conversion>>.
The pname:width and pname:height of the single-plane image view must: be
derived from the multi-planar image's dimensions in the manner listed for
<<features-formats-compatible-planes,plane compatibility>> for the plane.

Any view of an image plane will have the same mapping between texel
coordinates and memory locations as used by the channels of the color
aspect, subject to the formulae relating texel coordinates to
lower-resolution planes as described in <<textures-chroma-reconstruction,
Chroma Reconstruction>>.
That is, if an R or B plane has a reduced resolution relative to the G plane
of the multi-planar image, the image view operates using the (_u~plane~_,
_v~plane~_) unnormalized coordinates of the reduced-resolution plane, and
these coordinates access the same memory locations as the (_u~color~_,
_v~color~_) unnormalized coordinates of the color aspect for which chroma
reconstruction operations operate on the same (_u~plane~_, _v~plane~_) or
(_i~plane~_, _j~plane~_) coordinates.
endif::VK_KHR_sampler_ycbcr_conversion[]

[[resources-image-views-compatibility]]
.Image and image view parameter compatibility requirements
[cols="15%h,35%,50%",options="header"]
|====
| Dim, Arrayed, MS | Image parameters | View parameters
| | pname:imageType = ci.pname:imageType +
    pname:width = ci.pname:extent.width +
    pname:height = ci.pname:extent.height +
    pname:depth = ci.pname:extent.depth +
    pname:arrayLayers = ci.pname:arrayLayers +
    pname:samples = ci.pname:samples +
    pname:flags = ci.pname:flags +
    where ci is the slink:VkImageCreateInfo used to create pname:image.
ifdef::VK_KHR_maintenance1[]
  | pname:baseArrayLayer, pname:layerCount, and pname:levelCount
endif::VK_KHR_maintenance1[]
ifndef::VK_KHR_maintenance1[]
  | pname:baseArrayLayer and pname:layerCount
endif::VK_KHR_maintenance1[]
    are members of the pname:subresourceRange member.
| 1D, 0, 0 |
pname:imageType = ename:VK_IMAGE_TYPE_1D +
pname:width {geq} 1 +
pname:height = 1 +
pname:depth = 1 +
pname:arrayLayers {geq} 1 +
pname:samples = 1 |
pname:viewType = ename:VK_IMAGE_VIEW_TYPE_1D +
pname:baseArrayLayer {geq} 0 +
pname:layerCount = 1
| 1D, 1, 0 |
pname:imageType = ename:VK_IMAGE_TYPE_1D +
pname:width {geq} 1 +
pname:height = 1 +
pname:depth = 1 +
pname:arrayLayers {geq} 1 +
pname:samples = 1 |
pname:viewType = ename:VK_IMAGE_VIEW_TYPE_1D_ARRAY +
pname:baseArrayLayer {geq} 0 +
pname:layerCount {geq} 1
| 2D, 0, 0 |
pname:imageType = ename:VK_IMAGE_TYPE_2D +
pname:width {geq} 1 +
pname:height {geq} 1 +
pname:depth = 1 +
pname:arrayLayers {geq} 1 +
pname:samples = 1 |
pname:viewType = ename:VK_IMAGE_VIEW_TYPE_2D +
pname:baseArrayLayer {geq} 0 +
pname:layerCount = 1
| 2D, 1, 0 |
pname:imageType = ename:VK_IMAGE_TYPE_2D +
pname:width {geq} 1 +
pname:height {geq} 1 +
pname:depth = 1 +
pname:arrayLayers {geq} 1 +
pname:samples = 1 |
pname:viewType = ename:VK_IMAGE_VIEW_TYPE_2D_ARRAY +
pname:baseArrayLayer {geq} 0 +
pname:layerCount {geq} 1
| 2D, 0, 1 |
pname:imageType = ename:VK_IMAGE_TYPE_2D +
pname:width {geq} 1 +
pname:height {geq} 1 +
pname:depth = 1 +
pname:arrayLayers {geq} 1 +
pname:samples > 1 |
pname:viewType = ename:VK_IMAGE_VIEW_TYPE_2D +
pname:baseArrayLayer {geq} 0 +
pname:layerCount = 1
| 2D, 1, 1 |
pname:imageType = ename:VK_IMAGE_TYPE_2D +
pname:width {geq} 1 +
pname:height {geq} 1 +
pname:depth = 1 +
pname:arrayLayers {geq} 1 +
pname:samples > 1 |
pname:viewType = ename:VK_IMAGE_VIEW_TYPE_2D_ARRAY +
pname:baseArrayLayer {geq} 0 +
pname:layerCount {geq} 1
| CUBE, 0, 0 |
pname:imageType = ename:VK_IMAGE_TYPE_2D +
pname:width {geq} 1 +
pname:height = pname:width +
pname:depth = 1 +
pname:arrayLayers {geq} 6 +
pname:samples = 1 +
pname:flags includes ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_CUBE_COMPATIBLE_BIT |
pname:viewType = ename:VK_IMAGE_VIEW_TYPE_CUBE +
pname:baseArrayLayer {geq} 0 +
pname:layerCount = 6
| CUBE, 1, 0 |
pname:imageType = ename:VK_IMAGE_TYPE_2D +
pname:width {geq} 1 +
pname:height = width +
pname:depth = 1 +
_N_ {geq} 1 +
pname:arrayLayers {geq} 6 {times} _N_ +
pname:samples = 1 +
pname:flags includes ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_CUBE_COMPATIBLE_BIT |
pname:viewType = ename:VK_IMAGE_VIEW_TYPE_CUBE_ARRAY +
pname:baseArrayLayer {geq} 0 +
pname:layerCount = 6 {times} _N_, _N_ {geq} 1
| 3D, 0, 0 |
pname:imageType = ename:VK_IMAGE_TYPE_3D +
pname:width {geq} 1 +
pname:height {geq} 1 +
pname:depth {geq} 1 +
pname:arrayLayers = 1 +
pname:samples = 1 |
pname:viewType = ename:VK_IMAGE_VIEW_TYPE_3D +
pname:baseArrayLayer = 0 +
pname:layerCount = 1
ifdef::VK_KHR_maintenance1[]
| 3D, 0, 0 |
pname:imageType = ename:VK_IMAGE_TYPE_3D +
pname:width {geq} 1 +
pname:height {geq} 1 +
pname:depth {geq} 1 +
pname:arrayLayers = 1 +
pname:samples = 1 +
pname:flags includes ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_2D_ARRAY_COMPATIBLE_BIT +
pname:flags does not include ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_SPARSE_BINDING_BIT, ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_SPARSE_RESIDENCY_BIT, and ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_SPARSE_ALIASED_BIT |
pname:viewType = ename:VK_IMAGE_VIEW_TYPE_2D +
pname:levelCount = 1 +
pname:baseArrayLayer {geq} 0 +
pname:layerCount = 1
| 3D, 0, 0 |
pname:imageType = ename:VK_IMAGE_TYPE_3D +
pname:width {geq} 1 +
pname:height {geq} 1 +
pname:depth {geq} 1 +
pname:arrayLayers = 1 +
pname:samples = 1 +
pname:flags includes ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_2D_ARRAY_COMPATIBLE_BIT +
pname:flags does not include ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_SPARSE_BINDING_BIT, ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_SPARSE_RESIDENCY_BIT, and ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_SPARSE_ALIASED_BIT |
pname:viewType = ename:VK_IMAGE_VIEW_TYPE_2D_ARRAY +
pname:levelCount = 1 +
pname:baseArrayLayer {geq} 0 +
pname:layerCount {geq} 1
endif::VK_KHR_maintenance1[]
|====

.Valid Usage
****
  * [[VUID-VkImageViewCreateInfo-image-01003]]
    If pname:image was not created with
    ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_CUBE_COMPATIBLE_BIT then pname:viewType must: not
    be ename:VK_IMAGE_VIEW_TYPE_CUBE or ename:VK_IMAGE_VIEW_TYPE_CUBE_ARRAY
  * [[VUID-VkImageViewCreateInfo-viewType-01004]]
    If the <<features-features-imageCubeArray,image cubemap arrays>> feature
    is not enabled, pname:viewType must: not be
    ename:VK_IMAGE_VIEW_TYPE_CUBE_ARRAY
ifdef::VK_KHR_maintenance1[]
  * [[VUID-VkImageViewCreateInfo-image-01005]]
    If pname:image was created with ename:VK_IMAGE_TYPE_3D but without
    ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_2D_ARRAY_COMPATIBLE_BIT_KHR set then
    pname:viewType must: not be ename:VK_IMAGE_VIEW_TYPE_2D or
    ename:VK_IMAGE_VIEW_TYPE_2D_ARRAY
endif::VK_KHR_maintenance1[]
  * [[VUID-VkImageViewCreateInfo-image-01006]]
    If pname:image was created with ename:VK_IMAGE_TILING_LINEAR,
    pname:format must: be format that has at least one supported feature bit
    present in the value of
    sname:VkFormatProperties::pname:linearTilingFeatures returned by
    fname:vkGetPhysicalDeviceFormatProperties with the same value of
    pname:format
  * [[VUID-VkImageViewCreateInfo-image-01007]]
    pname:image must: have been created with a pname:usage value containing
    at least one of ename:VK_IMAGE_USAGE_SAMPLED_BIT,
    ename:VK_IMAGE_USAGE_STORAGE_BIT,
    ename:VK_IMAGE_USAGE_COLOR_ATTACHMENT_BIT,
    ename:VK_IMAGE_USAGE_DEPTH_STENCIL_ATTACHMENT_BIT, or
    ename:VK_IMAGE_USAGE_INPUT_ATTACHMENT_BIT
  * [[VUID-VkImageViewCreateInfo-image-01008]]
    If pname:image was created with ename:VK_IMAGE_TILING_LINEAR and
    pname:usage contains ename:VK_IMAGE_USAGE_SAMPLED_BIT, pname:format
    must: be supported for sampled images, as specified by the
    ename:VK_FORMAT_FEATURE_SAMPLED_IMAGE_BIT flag in
    sname:VkFormatProperties::pname:linearTilingFeatures returned by
    fname:vkGetPhysicalDeviceFormatProperties with the same value of
    pname:format
  * [[VUID-VkImageViewCreateInfo-image-01009]]
    If pname:image was created with ename:VK_IMAGE_TILING_LINEAR and
    pname:usage contains ename:VK_IMAGE_USAGE_STORAGE_BIT, pname:format
    must: be supported for storage images, as specified by the
    ename:VK_FORMAT_FEATURE_STORAGE_IMAGE_BIT flag in
    sname:VkFormatProperties::pname:linearTilingFeatures returned by
    fname:vkGetPhysicalDeviceFormatProperties with the same value of
    pname:format
  * [[VUID-VkImageViewCreateInfo-image-01010]]
    If pname:image was created with ename:VK_IMAGE_TILING_LINEAR and
    pname:usage contains ename:VK_IMAGE_USAGE_COLOR_ATTACHMENT_BIT,
    pname:format must: be supported for color attachments, as specified by
    the ename:VK_FORMAT_FEATURE_COLOR_ATTACHMENT_BIT flag in
    sname:VkFormatProperties::pname:linearTilingFeatures returned by
    fname:vkGetPhysicalDeviceFormatProperties with the same value of
    pname:format
  * [[VUID-VkImageViewCreateInfo-image-01011]]
    If pname:image was created with ename:VK_IMAGE_TILING_LINEAR and
    pname:usage contains ename:VK_IMAGE_USAGE_DEPTH_STENCIL_ATTACHMENT_BIT,
    pname:format must: be supported for depth/stencil attachments, as
    specified by the ename:VK_FORMAT_FEATURE_DEPTH_STENCIL_ATTACHMENT_BIT
    flag in sname:VkFormatProperties::pname:linearTilingFeatures returned by
    fname:vkGetPhysicalDeviceFormatProperties with the same value of
    pname:format
  * [[VUID-VkImageViewCreateInfo-image-01012]]
    If pname:image was created with ename:VK_IMAGE_TILING_OPTIMAL,
    pname:format must: be format that has at least one supported feature bit
    present in the value of
    sname:VkFormatProperties::pname:optimalTilingFeatures returned by
    fname:vkGetPhysicalDeviceFormatProperties with the same value of
    pname:format
  * [[VUID-VkImageViewCreateInfo-image-01013]]
    If pname:image was created with ename:VK_IMAGE_TILING_OPTIMAL and
    pname:usage contains ename:VK_IMAGE_USAGE_SAMPLED_BIT, pname:format
    must: be supported for sampled images, as specified by the
    ename:VK_FORMAT_FEATURE_SAMPLED_IMAGE_BIT flag in
    sname:VkFormatProperties::pname:optimalTilingFeatures returned by
    fname:vkGetPhysicalDeviceFormatProperties with the same value of
    pname:format
  * [[VUID-VkImageViewCreateInfo-image-01014]]
    If pname:image was created with ename:VK_IMAGE_TILING_OPTIMAL and
    pname:usage contains ename:VK_IMAGE_USAGE_STORAGE_BIT, pname:format
    must: be supported for storage images, as specified by the
    ename:VK_FORMAT_FEATURE_STORAGE_IMAGE_BIT flag in
    sname:VkFormatProperties::pname:optimalTilingFeatures returned by
    fname:vkGetPhysicalDeviceFormatProperties with the same value of
    pname:format
  * [[VUID-VkImageViewCreateInfo-image-01015]]
    If pname:image was created with ename:VK_IMAGE_TILING_OPTIMAL and
    pname:usage contains ename:VK_IMAGE_USAGE_COLOR_ATTACHMENT_BIT,
    pname:format must: be supported for color attachments, as specified by
    the ename:VK_FORMAT_FEATURE_COLOR_ATTACHMENT_BIT flag in
    sname:VkFormatProperties::pname:optimalTilingFeatures returned by
    fname:vkGetPhysicalDeviceFormatProperties with the same value of
    pname:format
  * [[VUID-VkImageViewCreateInfo-image-01016]]
    If pname:image was created with ename:VK_IMAGE_TILING_OPTIMAL and
    pname:usage contains ename:VK_IMAGE_USAGE_DEPTH_STENCIL_ATTACHMENT_BIT,
    pname:format must: be supported for depth/stencil attachments, as
    specified by the ename:VK_FORMAT_FEATURE_DEPTH_STENCIL_ATTACHMENT_BIT
    flag in sname:VkFormatProperties::pname:optimalTilingFeatures returned
    by fname:vkGetPhysicalDeviceFormatProperties with the same value of
    pname:format
  * [[VUID-VkImageViewCreateInfo-subresourceRange-01478]]
    pname:subresourceRange.baseMipLevel must: be less than the
    pname:mipLevels specified in slink:VkImageCreateInfo when pname:image
    was created
  * If pname:subresourceRange.levelCount is not
    ename:VK_REMAINING_MIP_LEVELS,
    [eq]#pname:subresourceRange.baseMipLevel {plus}
    pname:subresourceRange.levelCount# must: be less than or equal to the
    pname:mipLevels specified in slink:VkImageCreateInfo when pname:image
    was created
ifndef::VK_KHR_maintenance1[]
  * [[VUID-VkImageViewCreateInfo-subresourceRange-01480]]
    pname:subresourceRange.baseArrayLayer must: be less than the
    pname:arrayLayers specified in slink:VkImageCreateInfo when pname:image
    was created
  * If pname:subresourceRange.layerCount is not
    ename:VK_REMAINING_ARRAY_LAYERS,
    [eq]#pname:subresourceRange.baseArrayLayer {plus}
    pname:subresourceRange.layerCount# must: be less than or equal to the
    pname:arrayLayers specified in slink:VkImageCreateInfo when pname:image
    was created
endif::VK_KHR_maintenance1[]
ifdef::VK_KHR_maintenance1[]
  * [[VUID-VkImageViewCreateInfo-image-01482]]
    If pname:image is not a 3D image created with
    ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_2D_ARRAY_COMPATIBLE_BIT_KHR set, or pname:viewType
    is not ename:VK_IMAGE_VIEW_TYPE_2D or ename:VK_IMAGE_VIEW_TYPE_2D_ARRAY,
    pname:subresourceRange::pname:baseArrayLayer must: be less than the
    pname:arrayLayers specified in slink:VkImageCreateInfo when pname:image
    was created
  * [[VUID-VkImageViewCreateInfo-subresourceRange-01483]]
    If pname:subresourceRange::pname:layerCount is not
    ename:VK_REMAINING_ARRAY_LAYERS, pname:image is not a 3D image created
    with ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_2D_ARRAY_COMPATIBLE_BIT_KHR set, or
    pname:viewType is not ename:VK_IMAGE_VIEW_TYPE_2D or
    ename:VK_IMAGE_VIEW_TYPE_2D_ARRAY,
    pname:subresourceRange::pname:layerCount must: be non-zero and
    [eq]#pname:subresourceRange::pname:baseArrayLayer {plus}
    pname:subresourceRange::pname:layerCount# must: be less than or equal to
    the pname:arrayLayers specified in slink:VkImageCreateInfo when
    pname:image was created
  * [[VUID-VkImageViewCreateInfo-image-01484]]
    If pname:image is a 3D image created with
    ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_2D_ARRAY_COMPATIBLE_BIT_KHR set, and
    pname:viewType is ename:VK_IMAGE_VIEW_TYPE_2D or
    ename:VK_IMAGE_VIEW_TYPE_2D_ARRAY,
    pname:subresourceRange::pname:baseArrayLayer must: be less than the
    pname:extent.depth specified in slink:VkImageCreateInfo when pname:image
    was created
  * [[VUID-VkImageViewCreateInfo-subresourceRange-01485]]
    If pname:subresourceRange::pname:layerCount is not
    ename:VK_REMAINING_ARRAY_LAYERS, pname:image is a 3D image created with
    ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_2D_ARRAY_COMPATIBLE_BIT_KHR set, and
    pname:viewType is ename:VK_IMAGE_VIEW_TYPE_2D or
    ename:VK_IMAGE_VIEW_TYPE_2D_ARRAY,
    pname:subresourceRange::pname:layerCount must: be non-zero and
    [eq]#pname:subresourceRange::pname:baseArrayLayer {plus}
    pname:subresourceRange::pname:layerCount# must: be less than or equal to
    the pname:extent.depth specified in slink:VkImageCreateInfo when
    pname:image was created
endif::VK_KHR_maintenance1[]
  * [[VUID-VkImageViewCreateInfo-image-01018]]
    If pname:image was created with the
    ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_MUTABLE_FORMAT_BIT flag,
ifdef::VK_KHR_maintenance2[]
    but without the
    ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_BLOCK_TEXEL_VIEW_COMPATIBLE_BIT_KHR flag,
endif::VK_KHR_maintenance2[]
ifdef::VK_KHR_sampler_ycbcr_conversion[]
    and if the pname:format of the pname:image is not a
    <<features-formats-requiring-sampler-ycbcr-conversion,multi-planar>>
    format,
endif::VK_KHR_sampler_ycbcr_conversion[]
    pname:format must: be compatible with the pname:format used to create
    pname:image, as defined in
    <<features-formats-compatibility-classes,Format Compatibility Classes>>
ifdef::VK_KHR_maintenance2[]
  * [[VUID-VkImageViewCreateInfo-image-01583]]
    If pname:image was created with the
    ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_BLOCK_TEXEL_VIEW_COMPATIBLE_BIT_KHR flag,
    pname:format must: be compatible with, or must: be an uncompressed
    format that is size-compatible with, the pname:format used to create
    pname:image.
  * [[VUID-VkImageViewCreateInfo-image-01584]]
    If pname:image was created with the
    ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_BLOCK_TEXEL_VIEW_COMPATIBLE_BIT_KHR flag, the
    pname:levelCount and pname:layerCount members of pname:subresourceRange
    must: both be `1`.
endif::VK_KHR_maintenance2[]
ifdef::VK_KHR_image_format_list[]
  * [[VUID-VkImageViewCreateInfo-pNext-01585]]
    If a sname:VkImageFormatListCreateInfoKHR structure was included in the
    pname:pNext chain of the sname:VkImageCreateInfo struct used when
    creating pname:image and the pname:viewFormatCount field of
    sname:VkImageFormatListCreateInfoKHR is not zero then pname:format must:
    be one of the formats in
    sname:VkImageFormatListCreateInfoKHR::pname:pViewFormats.
endif::VK_KHR_image_format_list[]
ifdef::VK_KHR_sampler_ycbcr_conversion[]
  * [[VUID-VkImageViewCreateInfo-image-01586]]
    If pname:image was created with the
    ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_MUTABLE_FORMAT_BIT flag, if the pname:format of
    the pname:image is a
    <<features-formats-requiring-sampler-ycbcr-conversion,multi-planar>>
    format, and if pname:subresourceRange.aspectMask is one of
    ename:VK_IMAGE_ASPECT_PLANE_0_BIT_KHR,
    ename:VK_IMAGE_ASPECT_PLANE_1_BIT_KHR, or
    ename:VK_IMAGE_ASPECT_PLANE_2_BIT_KHR, then pname:format must: be
    compatible with the elink:VkFormat for the plane of the pname:image
    pname:format indicated by pname:subresourceRange.aspectMask, as defined
    in <<features-formats-compatible-planes>>
endif::VK_KHR_sampler_ycbcr_conversion[]
  * [[VUID-VkImageViewCreateInfo-image-01019]]
    If pname:image was not created with the
    ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_MUTABLE_FORMAT_BIT flag,
ifdef::VK_KHR_sampler_ycbcr_conversion[]
    or if the pname:format of the pname:image is a
    <<features-formats-requiring-sampler-ycbcr-conversion,multi-planar>>
    format and if pname:subresourceRange.aspectMask is
    ename:VK_IMAGE_ASPECT_COLOR_BIT,
endif::VK_KHR_sampler_ycbcr_conversion[]
    pname:format must: be identical to the pname:format used to create
    pname:image
  * [[VUID-VkImageViewCreateInfo-image-01020]]
    If pname:image is non-sparse then it must: be bound completely and
    contiguously to a single sname:VkDeviceMemory object
  * [[VUID-VkImageViewCreateInfo-subResourceRange-01021]]
    pname:subresourceRange and pname:viewType must: be compatible with the
    image, as described in the
    <<resources-image-views-compatibility,compatibility table>>
****

include::../validity/structs/VkImageViewCreateInfo.txt[]
--

ifdef::VK_KHR_maintenance2[]

[open,refpage='VkImageViewUsageCreateInfoKHR',desc='Specify the intended usage of an image view',type='structs']
--

The set of usages for the created image view can: be restricted compared to
the parent image's pname:usage flags by chaining a
sname:VkImageViewUsageCreateInfoKHR structure through the pname:pNext member
to sname:VkImageViewCreateInfo.

The sname:VkImageViewUsageCreateInfoKHR structure is defined as:

include::../api/structs/VkImageViewUsageCreateInfoKHR.txt[]

  * pname:sType is the type of this structure.
  * pname:pNext is `NULL` or a pointer to an extension-specific structure.
  * pname:usage is a bitmask describing the allowed usages of the image
    view.
    See elink:VkImageUsageFlagBits for a description of the supported bits.

When this structure is chained to sname:VkImageViewCreateInfo the
pname:usage field overrides the implicit pname:usage parameter inherited
from image creation time and its value is used instead for the purposes of
determining the valid usage conditions of slink:VkImageViewCreateInfo.


.Valid Usage
****
  * [[VUID-VkImageViewUsageCreateInfoKHR-usage-01587]]
    pname:usage must: not include any set bits that were not set in the
    pname:usage member of the slink:VkImageCreateInfo structure used to
    create the image this image view is created from.
****

include::../validity/structs/VkImageViewUsageCreateInfoKHR.txt[]

--

endif::VK_KHR_maintenance2[]

[open,refpage='VkImageSubresourceRange',desc='Structure specifying a image subresource range',type='structs']
--

The sname:VkImageSubresourceRange structure is defined as:

include::../api/structs/VkImageSubresourceRange.txt[]

  * pname:aspectMask is a bitmask of elink:VkImageAspectFlagBits specifying
    which aspect(s) of the image are included in the view.
  * pname:baseMipLevel is the first mipmap level accessible to the view.
  * pname:levelCount is the number of mipmap levels (starting from
    pname:baseMipLevel) accessible to the view.
  * pname:baseArrayLayer is the first array layer accessible to the view.
  * pname:layerCount is the number of array layers (starting from
    pname:baseArrayLayer) accessible to the view.

The number of mipmap levels and array layers must: be a subset of the image
subresources in the image.
If an application wants to use all mip levels or layers in an image after
the pname:baseMipLevel or pname:baseArrayLayer, it can: set pname:levelCount
and pname:layerCount to the special values ename:VK_REMAINING_MIP_LEVELS and
ename:VK_REMAINING_ARRAY_LAYERS without knowing the exact number of mip
levels or layers.

For cube and cube array image views, the layers of the image view starting
at pname:baseArrayLayer correspond to faces in the order +X, -X, +Y, -Y, +Z,
-Z.
For cube arrays, each set of six sequential layers is a single cube, so the
number of cube maps in a cube map array view is _pname:layerCount / 6_, and
image array layer [eq]#(pname:baseArrayLayer {plus} i)# is face index
[eq]#(i mod 6)# of cube _i / 6_.
If the number of layers in the view, whether set explicitly in
pname:layerCount or implied by ename:VK_REMAINING_ARRAY_LAYERS, is not a
multiple of 6, behavior when indexing the last cube is undefined.

pname:aspectMask must: be only ename:VK_IMAGE_ASPECT_COLOR_BIT,
ename:VK_IMAGE_ASPECT_DEPTH_BIT or ename:VK_IMAGE_ASPECT_STENCIL_BIT if
pname:format is a color, depth-only or stencil-only format,
ifndef::VK_KHR_sampler_ycbcr_conversion[]
respectively.
endif::VK_KHR_sampler_ycbcr_conversion[]
ifdef::VK_KHR_sampler_ycbcr_conversion[]
respectively, except if pname:format is a
<<features-formats-requiring-sampler-ycbcr-conversion,multi-planar format>>.
endif::VK_KHR_sampler_ycbcr_conversion[]
If using a depth/stencil format with both depth and stencil components,
pname:aspectMask must: include at least one of
ename:VK_IMAGE_ASPECT_DEPTH_BIT and ename:VK_IMAGE_ASPECT_STENCIL_BIT, and
can: include both.

ifdef::VK_KHR_maintenance1[]
When the sname:VkImageSubresourceRange structure is used to select a subset
of the slices of a 3D image's mip level in order to create a 2D or 2D array
image view of a 3D image created with
ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_2D_ARRAY_COMPATIBLE_BIT, pname:baseArrayLayer and
pname:layerCount specify the first slice index and the number of slices to
include in the created image view.
Such an image view can: be used as a framebuffer attachment that refers only
to the specified range of slices of the selected mip level.
However, any layout transitions performed on such an attachment view during
a render pass instance still apply to the entire subresource referenced
which includes all the slices of the selected mip level.
endif::VK_KHR_maintenance1[]

When using an imageView of a depth/stencil image to populate a descriptor
set (e.g. for sampling in the shader, or for use as an input attachment),
the pname:aspectMask must: only include one bit and selects whether the
imageView is used for depth reads (i.e. using a floating-point sampler or
input attachment in the shader) or stencil reads (i.e. using an unsigned
integer sampler or input attachment in the shader).
When an imageView of a depth/stencil image is used as a depth/stencil
framebuffer attachment, the pname:aspectMask is ignored and both depth and
stencil image subresources are used.

The pname:components member is of type slink:VkComponentMapping, and
describes a remapping from components of the image to components of the
vector returned by shader image instructions.
This remapping must: be identity for storage image descriptors, input
attachment descriptors,
ifndef::VK_KHR_sampler_ycbcr_conversion[]
and framebuffer attachments.
endif::VK_KHR_sampler_ycbcr_conversion[]
ifdef::VK_KHR_sampler_ycbcr_conversion[]
framebuffer attachments, and any sname:VkImageView used with a combined
image sampler that enables <<samplers-YCbCr-conversion,sampler Y'C~B~C~R~
conversion>>.

When creating a sname:VkImageView, if <<samplers-YCbCr-conversion,sampler
Y'C~B~C~R~ conversion>> is enabled in the sampler, the pname:aspectMask of a
pname:subresourceRange used by the sname:VkImageView must: be
ename:VK_IMAGE_ASPECT_COLOR_BIT.

When creating a sname:VkImageView, if sampler Y'C~B~C~R~ conversion is not
enabled in the sampler and the image pname:format is
<<features-formats-requiring-sampler-ycbcr-conversion,multi-planar>>, the
image must: have been created with ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_MUTABLE_FORMAT_BIT,
and the pname:aspectMask of the sname:VkImageView's pname:subresourceRange
must: be ename:VK_IMAGE_ASPECT_PLANE_0_BIT_KHR,
ename:VK_IMAGE_ASPECT_PLANE_1_BIT_KHR or
ename:VK_IMAGE_ASPECT_PLANE_2_BIT_KHR.
endif::VK_KHR_sampler_ycbcr_conversion[]

.Valid Usage
****
  * If pname:levelCount is not ename:VK_REMAINING_MIP_LEVELS, it must:
    be greater than `0`
  * If pname:layerCount is not ename:VK_REMAINING_ARRAY_LAYERS, it must:
    be greater than `0`
  * [[VUID-VkImageSubresourceRange-aspectMask-01670]]
    If pname:aspectMask includes ename:VK_IMAGE_ASPECT_COLOR_BIT, then it
    must: not include any of ename:VK_IMAGE_ASPECT_PLANE_0_BIT_KHR,
    ename:VK_IMAGE_ASPECT_PLANE_1_BIT_KHR, or
    ename:VK_IMAGE_ASPECT_PLANE_2_BIT_KHR
****

include::../validity/structs/VkImageSubresourceRange.txt[]
--

[open,refpage='VkImageAspectFlagBits',desc='Bitmask specifying which aspects of an image are included in a view',type='enums']
--

Bits which can: be set in an aspect mask to specify aspects of an image for
purposes such as identifying a subresource, are:

include::../api/enums/VkImageAspectFlagBits.txt[]

  * ename:VK_IMAGE_ASPECT_COLOR_BIT specifies the color aspect.
  * ename:VK_IMAGE_ASPECT_DEPTH_BIT specifies the depth aspect.
  * ename:VK_IMAGE_ASPECT_STENCIL_BIT specifies the stencil aspect.
  * ename:VK_IMAGE_ASPECT_METADATA_BIT specifies the metadata aspect, used
    for sparse <<sparsememory, sparse resource>> operations.

--

[open,refpage='VkComponentMapping',desc='Structure specifying a color component mapping',type='structs']
--

The sname:VkComponentMapping structure is defined as:

include::../api/structs/VkComponentMapping.txt[]

  * pname:r is a elink:VkComponentSwizzle specifying the component value
    placed in the R component of the output vector.
  * pname:g is a elink:VkComponentSwizzle specifying the component value
    placed in the G component of the output vector.
  * pname:b is a elink:VkComponentSwizzle specifying the component value
    placed in the B component of the output vector.
  * pname:a is a elink:VkComponentSwizzle specifying the component value
    placed in the A component of the output vector.

include::../validity/structs/VkComponentMapping.txt[]
--

[open,refpage='VkComponentSwizzle',desc='Specify how a component is swizzled',type='enums']
--

Possible values of the members of slink:VkComponentMapping, specifying the
component values placed in each component of the output vector, are:

include::../api/enums/VkComponentSwizzle.txt[]

  * ename:VK_COMPONENT_SWIZZLE_IDENTITY specifies that the component is set
    to the identity swizzle.
  * ename:VK_COMPONENT_SWIZZLE_ZERO specifies that the component is set to
    zero.
  * ename:VK_COMPONENT_SWIZZLE_ONE specifies that the component is set to
    either 1 or 1.0, depending on whether the type of the image view format
    is integer or floating-point respectively, as determined by the
    <<features-formats-definition,Format Definition>> section for each
    elink:VkFormat.
  * ename:VK_COMPONENT_SWIZZLE_R specifies that the component is set to the
    value of the R component of the image.
  * ename:VK_COMPONENT_SWIZZLE_G specifies that the component is set to the
    value of the G component of the image.
  * ename:VK_COMPONENT_SWIZZLE_B specifies that the component is set to the
    value of the B component of the image.
  * ename:VK_COMPONENT_SWIZZLE_A specifies that the component is set to the
    value of the A component of the image.

Setting the identity swizzle on a component is equivalent to setting the
identity mapping on that component.
That is:

[[resources-image-views-identity-mappings]]
.Component Mappings Equivalent To ename:VK_COMPONENT_SWIZZLE_IDENTITY
[options="header"]
|====
| Component          | Identity Mapping
| pname:components.r | ename:VK_COMPONENT_SWIZZLE_R
| pname:components.g | ename:VK_COMPONENT_SWIZZLE_G
| pname:components.b | ename:VK_COMPONENT_SWIZZLE_B
| pname:components.a | ename:VK_COMPONENT_SWIZZLE_A
|====

--

[open,refpage='vkDestroyImageView',desc='Destroy an image view object',type='protos']
--

To destroy an image view, call:

include::../api/protos/vkDestroyImageView.txt[]

  * pname:device is the logical device that destroys the image view.
  * pname:imageView is the image view to destroy.
  * pname:pAllocator controls host memory allocation as described in the
    <<memory-allocation, Memory Allocation>> chapter.

.Valid Usage
****
  * [[VUID-vkDestroyImageView-imageView-01026]]
    All submitted commands that refer to pname:imageView must: have
    completed execution
  * [[VUID-vkDestroyImageView-imageView-01027]]
    If sname:VkAllocationCallbacks were provided when pname:imageView was
    created, a compatible set of callbacks must: be provided here
  * [[VUID-vkDestroyImageView-imageView-01028]]
    If no sname:VkAllocationCallbacks were provided when pname:imageView was
    created, pname:pAllocator must: be `NULL`
****

include::../validity/protos/vkDestroyImageView.txt[]
--


[[resources-association]]
== Resource Memory Association

Resources are initially created as _virtual allocations_ with no backing
memory.
Device memory is allocated separately (see <<memory-device>>) and then
associated with the resource.
This association is done differently for sparse and non-sparse resources.

Resources created with any of the sparse creation flags are considered
sparse resources.
Resources created without these flags are non-sparse.
The details on resource memory association for sparse resources is described
in <<sparsememory>>.

Non-sparse resources must: be bound completely and contiguously to a single
sname:VkDeviceMemory object before the resource is passed as a parameter to
any of the following operations:

  * creating image or buffer views
  * updating descriptor sets
  * recording commands in a command buffer

Once bound, the memory binding is immutable for the lifetime of the
resource.

ifdef::VK_KHX_device_group[]

In a logical device representing more than one physical device, buffer and
image resources exist on all physical devices but can: be bound to memory
differently on each.
Each such replicated resource is an _instance_ of the resource.
For sparse resources, each instance can: be bound to memory arbitrarily
differently.
For non-sparse resources, each instance can: either be bound to the local or
a peer instance of the memory, or for images can: be bound to rectangular
regions from the local and/or peer instances.
When a resource is used in a descriptor set, each physical device interprets
the descriptor according to its own instance's binding to memory.

[NOTE]
.Note
====
There are no new copy commands to transfer data between physical devices.
Instead, an application can: create a resource with a peer mapping and use
it as the source or destination of a transfer command executed by a single
physical device to copy the data from one physical device to another.
====

endif::VK_KHX_device_group[]

[open,refpage='vkGetBufferMemoryRequirements',desc='Returns the memory requirements for specified Vulkan object',type='protos']
--

To determine the memory requirements for a buffer resource, call:

include::../api/protos/vkGetBufferMemoryRequirements.txt[]

  * pname:device is the logical device that owns the buffer.
  * pname:buffer is the buffer to query.
  * pname:pMemoryRequirements points to an instance of the
    slink:VkMemoryRequirements structure in which the memory requirements of
    the buffer object are returned.

include::../validity/protos/vkGetBufferMemoryRequirements.txt[]
--

[open,refpage='vkGetImageMemoryRequirements',desc='Returns the memory requirements for specified Vulkan object',type='protos']
--

ifndef::VK_KHR_sampler_ycbcr_conversion[]
To determine the memory requirements for an image resource, call:
endif::VK_KHR_sampler_ycbcr_conversion[]
ifdef::VK_KHR_sampler_ycbcr_conversion[]
To determine the memory requirements for an image resource which is not
created with the ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_DISJOINT_BIT_KHR flag set, call:
endif::VK_KHR_sampler_ycbcr_conversion[]

include::../api/protos/vkGetImageMemoryRequirements.txt[]

  * pname:device is the logical device that owns the image.
  * pname:image is the image to query.
  * pname:pMemoryRequirements points to an instance of the
    slink:VkMemoryRequirements structure in which the memory requirements of
    the image object are returned.

ifdef::VK_KHR_sampler_ycbcr_conversion[]

.Valid Usage
****
  * [[VUID-vkGetImageMemoryRequirements-image-01588]]
    pname:image must: not have been created with the
    ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_DISJOINT_BIT_KHR flag set
****

endif::VK_KHR_sampler_ycbcr_conversion[]

include::../validity/protos/vkGetImageMemoryRequirements.txt[]
--

[open,refpage='VkMemoryRequirements',desc='Structure specifying memory requirements',type='structs']
--

The sname:VkMemoryRequirements structure is defined as:

include::../api/structs/VkMemoryRequirements.txt[]

  * pname:size is the size, in bytes, of the memory allocation required: for
    the resource.
  * pname:alignment is the alignment, in bytes, of the offset within the
    allocation required: for the resource.
  * pname:memoryTypeBits is a bitmask and contains one bit set for every
    supported memory type for the resource.
    Bit `i` is set if and only if the memory type `i` in the
    sname:VkPhysicalDeviceMemoryProperties structure for the physical device
    is supported for the resource.

include::../validity/structs/VkMemoryRequirements.txt[]
--

The implementation guarantees certain properties about the memory
requirements returned by flink:vkGetBufferMemoryRequirements and
flink:vkGetImageMemoryRequirements:

  * The pname:memoryTypeBits member always contains at least one bit set.
  * If pname:buffer is a sname:VkBuffer not created with the
    ename:VK_BUFFER_CREATE_SPARSE_BINDING_BIT bit set, or if pname:image is
    a sname:VkImage that was created with a ename:VK_IMAGE_TILING_LINEAR
    value in the pname:tiling member of the sname:VkImageCreateInfo
    structure passed to fname:vkCreateImage, then the pname:memoryTypeBits
    member always contains at least one bit set corresponding to a
    sname:VkMemoryType with a pname:propertyFlags that has both the
    ename:VK_MEMORY_PROPERTY_HOST_VISIBLE_BIT bit and the
    ename:VK_MEMORY_PROPERTY_HOST_COHERENT_BIT bit set.
    In other words, mappable coherent memory can: always be attached to
    these objects.
ifdef::VK_KHR_external_memory[]
  * If pname:buffer was created with
    slink:VkExternalMemoryBufferCreateInfoKHR::pname:handleTypes set to `0`
    or pname:image was created with
    slink:VkExternalMemoryImageCreateInfoKHR::pname:handleTypes set to `0`,
    the
endif::VK_KHR_external_memory[]
ifndef::VK_KHR_external_memory[]
  * The
endif::VK_KHR_external_memory[]
    pname:memoryTypeBits member always contains at least one bit set
    corresponding to a sname:VkMemoryType with a pname:propertyFlags that
    has the ename:VK_MEMORY_PROPERTY_DEVICE_LOCAL_BIT bit set.
  * The pname:memoryTypeBits member is identical for all sname:VkBuffer
    objects created with the same value for the pname:flags and pname:usage
    members in the sname:VkBufferCreateInfo structure
ifdef::VK_KHR_external_memory[]
    and the pname:handleTypes member of the
    slink:VkExternalMemoryBufferCreateInfoKHR structure
endif::VK_KHR_external_memory[]
    passed to fname:vkCreateBuffer.
    Further, if code:usage1 and code:usage2 of type elink:VkBufferUsageFlags
    are such that the bits set in code:usage2 are a subset of the bits set
    in code:usage1, and they have the same
ifdef::VK_KHR_external_memory[]
    pname:flags and
    slink:VkExternalMemoryBufferCreateInfoKHR::pname:handleTypes,
endif::VK_KHR_external_memory[]
ifndef::VK_KHR_external_memory[]
    pname:flags,
endif::VK_KHR_external_memory[]
    then the bits set in pname:memoryTypeBits returned for code:usage1 must:
    be a subset of the bits set in pname:memoryTypeBits returned for
    code:usage2, for all values of pname:flags.
  * The pname:alignment member is a power of two.
  * The pname:alignment member is identical for all sname:VkBuffer objects
    created with the same combination of values for the pname:usage and
    pname:flags members in the sname:VkBufferCreateInfo structure passed to
    fname:vkCreateBuffer.
  * For images created with a color format, the pname:memoryTypeBits member
    is identical for all sname:VkImage objects created with the same
    combination of values for the pname:tiling member, the
    ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_SPARSE_BINDING_BIT bit of the pname:flags member,
ifdef::VK_KHX_device_group[]
    the ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_BIND_SFR_BIT_KHX bit of the pname:flags
    member,
endif::VK_KHX_device_group[]
ifdef::VK_KHR_external_memory[]
    pname:handleTypes member of slink:VkExternalMemoryImageCreateInfoKHR,
endif::VK_KHR_external_memory[]
    and the ename:VK_IMAGE_USAGE_TRANSIENT_ATTACHMENT_BIT of the pname:usage
    member in the sname:VkImageCreateInfo structure passed to
    fname:vkCreateImage.
  * For images created with a depth/stencil format, the pname:memoryTypeBits
    member is identical for all sname:VkImage objects created with the same
    combination of values for the pname:format member, the pname:tiling
    member, the ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_SPARSE_BINDING_BIT bit of the
    pname:flags member,
ifdef::VK_KHX_device_group[]
    the ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_BIND_SFR_BIT_KHX bit of the pname:flags
    member,
endif::VK_KHX_device_group[]
ifdef::VK_KHR_external_memory[]
    pname:handleTypes member of slink:VkExternalMemoryImageCreateInfoKHR,
endif::VK_KHR_external_memory[]
    and the ename:VK_IMAGE_USAGE_TRANSIENT_ATTACHMENT_BIT of the pname:usage
    member in the sname:VkImageCreateInfo structure passed to
    fname:vkCreateImage.
  * If the memory requirements are for a sname:VkImage, the
    pname:memoryTypeBits member must: not refer to a sname:VkMemoryType with
    a pname:propertyFlags that has the
    ename:VK_MEMORY_PROPERTY_LAZILY_ALLOCATED_BIT bit set if the
    flink:vkGetImageMemoryRequirements::pname:image did not have
    ename:VK_IMAGE_USAGE_TRANSIENT_ATTACHMENT_BIT bit set in the pname:usage
    member of the sname:VkImageCreateInfo structure passed to
    fname:vkCreateImage.
  * If the memory requirements are for a sname:VkBuffer, the
    pname:memoryTypeBits member must: not refer to a sname:VkMemoryType with
    a pname:propertyFlags that has the
    ename:VK_MEMORY_PROPERTY_LAZILY_ALLOCATED_BIT bit set.
+
[NOTE]
.Note
====
The implication of this requirement is that lazily allocated memory is
disallowed for buffers in all cases.
====

ifdef::VK_KHR_get_memory_requirements2[]

[open,refpage='vkGetBufferMemoryRequirements2KHR',desc='Returns the memory requirements for specified Vulkan object',type='protos']
--

To determine the memory requirements for a buffer resource, call:

include::../api/protos/vkGetBufferMemoryRequirements2KHR.txt[]

  * pname:device is the logical device that owns the buffer.
  * pname:pInfo is a pointer to an instance of the
    sname:VkBufferMemoryRequirementsInfo2KHR structure containing parameters
    required for the memory requirements query.
  * pname:pMemoryRequirements points to an instance of the
    slink:VkMemoryRequirements2KHR structure in which the memory
    requirements of the buffer object are returned.

include::../validity/protos/vkGetBufferMemoryRequirements2KHR.txt[]
--

[open,refpage='VkBufferMemoryRequirementsInfo2KHR',desc='(None)',type='structs']
--
The sname:VkBufferMemoryRequirementsInfo2KHR structure is defined as:

include::../api/structs/VkBufferMemoryRequirementsInfo2KHR.txt[]

  * pname:sType is the type of this structure.
  * pname:pNext is `NULL` or a pointer to an extension-specific structure.
  * pname:buffer is the buffer to query.

include::../validity/structs/VkBufferMemoryRequirementsInfo2KHR.txt[]
--

[open,refpage='vkGetImageMemoryRequirements2KHR',desc='Returns the memory requirements for specified Vulkan object',type='protos']
--

To determine the memory requirements for an image resource, call:

include::../api/protos/vkGetImageMemoryRequirements2KHR.txt[]

  * pname:device is the logical device that owns the image.
  * pname:pInfo is a pointer to an instance of the
    sname:VkImageMemoryRequirementsInfo2KHR structure containing parameters
    required for the memory requirements query.
  * pname:pMemoryRequirements points to an instance of the
    slink:VkMemoryRequirements2KHR structure in which the memory
    requirements of the image object are returned.

include::../validity/protos/vkGetImageMemoryRequirements2KHR.txt[]
--

[open,refpage='VkImageMemoryRequirementsInfo2KHR',desc='(None)',type='structs']
--
The sname:VkImageMemoryRequirementsInfo2KHR structure is defined as:

include::../api/structs/VkImageMemoryRequirementsInfo2KHR.txt[]

  * pname:sType is the type of this structure.
  * pname:pNext is `NULL` or a pointer to an extension-specific structure.
  * pname:image is the image to query.

ifdef::VK_KHR_sampler_ycbcr_conversion[]

.Valid Usage
****
  * [[VUID-VkImageMemoryRequirementsInfo2KHR-image-01589]]
    If pname:image was created with a _multi-planar_ format and the
    ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_DISJOINT_BIT_KHR flag, there must: be a
    slink:VkImagePlaneMemoryRequirementsInfoKHR in the pname:pNext chain of
    the slink:VkImageMemoryRequirementsInfo2KHR structure
  * [[VUID-VkImageMemoryRequirementsInfo2KHR-image-01590]]
    If pname:image was not created with the
    ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_DISJOINT_BIT_KHR flag, there must: not be a
    slink:VkImagePlaneMemoryRequirementsInfoKHR in the pname:pNext chain of
    the slink:VkImageMemoryRequirementsInfo2KHR structure
  * [[VUID-VkImageMemoryRequirementsInfo2KHR-image-01591]]
    If pname:image was created with a single-plane format, there must: not
    be a slink:VkImagePlaneMemoryRequirementsInfoKHR in the pname:pNext
    chain of the slink:VkImageMemoryRequirementsInfo2KHR structure
****

endif::VK_KHR_sampler_ycbcr_conversion[]

include::../validity/structs/VkImageMemoryRequirementsInfo2KHR.txt[]
--

ifdef::VK_KHR_sampler_ycbcr_conversion[]
[open,refpage='VkImagePlaneMemoryRequirementsInfoKHR',desc='Structure specifying image plane for memory requirements',type='structs']
--

To determine the memory requirements for a plane of a disjoint image, add a
sname:VkImagePlaneMemoryRequirementsInfoKHR to the pname:pNext chain of the
sname:VkImageMemoryRequirementsInfo2KHR structure.

The sname:VkImagePlaneMemoryRequirementsInfoKHR structure is defined as:

include::../api/structs/VkImagePlaneMemoryRequirementsInfoKHR.txt[]

  * pname:sType is the type of this structure.
  * pname:pNext is `NULL` or a pointer to an extension-specific structure.
  * pname:planeAspect is the aspect corresponding to the image plane to
    query.

.Valid Usage
****
  * [[VUID-VkImagePlaneMemoryRequirementsInfoKHR-planeAspect-01592]]
    pname:planeAspect must: be an aspect that exists in the format; that is,
    for a two-plane image pname:planeAspect must: be
    ename:VK_IMAGE_ASPECT_PLANE_0_BIT_KHR or
    ename:VK_IMAGE_ASPECT_PLANE_1_BIT_KHR, and for a three-plane image
    pname:planeAspect must: be ename:VK_IMAGE_ASPECT_PLANE_0_BIT_KHR,
    ename:VK_IMAGE_ASPECT_PLANE_1_BIT_KHR or
    ename:VK_IMAGE_ASPECT_PLANE_2_BIT_KHR
****

include::../validity/structs/VkImagePlaneMemoryRequirementsInfoKHR.txt[]
--

endif::VK_KHR_sampler_ycbcr_conversion[]

[open,refpage='VkMemoryRequirements2KHR',desc='Structure specifying memory requirements',type='structs']
--

The sname:VkMemoryRequirements2KHR structure is defined as:

include::../api/structs/VkMemoryRequirements2KHR.txt[]

  * pname:sType is the type of this structure.
  * pname:pNext is `NULL` or a pointer to an extension-specific structure.
  * pname:memoryRequirements is a structure of type
    slink:VkMemoryRequirements describing the memory requirements of the
    resource.

include::../validity/structs/VkMemoryRequirements2KHR.txt[]
--

endif::VK_KHR_get_memory_requirements2[]

ifdef::VK_KHR_dedicated_allocation[]

[open,refpage='VkMemoryDedicatedRequirementsKHR',desc='Structure describing dedicated allocation requirements of buffer and image resources',type='structs']
--

To determine the dedicated allocation requirements of a buffer or image
resource, add a slink:VkMemoryDedicatedRequirementsKHR structure to the
pname:pNext chain of the slink:VkMemoryRequirements2KHR structure passed as
the pname:pMemoryRequirements parameter of
fname:vkGetBufferMemoryRequirements2KHR or
fname:vkGetImageMemoryRequirements2KHR.

The sname:VkMemoryDedicatedRequirementsKHR structure is defined as:

include::../api/structs/VkMemoryDedicatedRequirementsKHR.txt[]

  * pname:sType is the type of this structure.
  * pname:pNext is `NULL` or a pointer to an extension-specific structure.
  * pname:prefersDedicatedAllocation indicates that the implementation would
    prefer a dedicated allocation for this resource.
    The application is still free to suballocate the resource but it may:
    get better performance if a dedicated allocation is used.
  * pname:requiresDedicatedAllocation indicates that a dedicated allocation
    is required for this resource.

If the sname:VkMemoryDedicatedRequirementsKHR structure is included in the
pname:pNext chain of the slink:VkMemoryRequirements2KHR structure passed as
the pname:pMemoryRequirements parameter of a
fname:vkGetBufferMemoryRequirements2KHR call,
pname:requiresDedicatedAllocation may: be ename:VK_TRUE under one of the
following conditions:

ifndef::VK_KHR_external_memory[]
  * none
endif::VK_KHR_external_memory[]
ifdef::VK_KHR_external_memory[]
  * The pname:pNext chain of sname:VkBufferCreateInfo for the call to
    fname:vkCreateBuffer used to create the buffer being queried contained
    an instance of sname:VkExternalMemoryBufferCreateInfoKHR, and any of the
    handle types specified in
    sname:VkExternalMemoryBufferCreateInfoKHR::pname:handleTypes requires
    dedicated allocation, as reported by
    flink:vkGetPhysicalDeviceExternalBufferPropertiesKHR in
    sname:VkExternalBufferPropertiesKHR::pname:externalMemoryProperties::pname:externalMemoryFeatures,
    the pname:requiresDedicatedAllocation field will be set to
    ename:VK_TRUE.
endif::VK_KHR_external_memory[]

In all other cases, pname:requiresDedicatedAllocation must: be set to
ename:VK_FALSE by the implementation whenever a
sname:VkMemoryDedicatedRequirementsKHR structure is included in the
pname:pNext chain of the sname:VkMemoryRequirements2KHR structure passed to
a call to fname:vkGetBufferMemoryRequirements2KHR.

If the sname:VkMemoryDedicatedRequirementsKHR structure is included in the
pname:pNext chain of the sname:VkMemoryRequirements2KHR structure passed as
the pname:pMemoryRequirements parameter of a
fname:vkGetBufferMemoryRequirements2KHR call and
ename:VK_BUFFER_CREATE_SPARSE_BINDING_BIT was set in
sname:VkBufferCreateInfo::pname:flags when pname:buffer was created then the
implementation must: set both pname:prefersDedicatedAllocation and
pname:requiresDedicatedAllocation to ename:VK_FALSE.

If the sname:VkMemoryDedicatedRequirementsKHR structure is included in the
pname:pNext chain of the sname:VkMemoryRequirements2KHR structure passed as
the pname:pMemoryRequirements parameter of a
fname:vkGetImageMemoryRequirements2KHR call,
pname:requiresDedicatedAllocation may: be ename:VK_TRUE under one of the
following conditions:

ifndef::VK_KHR_external_memory[]
  * none
endif::VK_KHR_external_memory[]
ifdef::VK_KHR_external_memory[]
  * The pname:pNext chain of sname:VkImageCreateInfo for the call to
    fname:vkCreateImage used to create the image being queried contained an
    instance of sname:VkExternalMemoryImageCreateInfoKHR, and any of the
    handle types specified in
    sname:VkExternalMemoryImageCreateInfoKHR::pname:handleTypes requires
    dedicated allocation, as reported by
    flink:vkGetPhysicalDeviceImageFormatProperties2KHR in
    sname:VkExternalImageFormatPropertiesKHR::pname:externalMemoryProperties::pname:externalMemoryFeatures,
    the pname:requiresDedicatedAllocation field will be set to
    ename:VK_TRUE.
endif::VK_KHR_external_memory[]

In all other cases, pname:requiresDedicatedAllocation must: be set to
ename:VK_FALSE by the implementation whenever a
sname:VkMemoryDedicatedRequirementsKHR structure is included in the
pname:pNext chain of the sname:VkMemoryRequirements2KHR structure passed to
a call to fname:vkGetImageMemoryRequirements2KHR.

If the sname:VkMemoryDedicatedRequirementsKHR structure is included in the
pname:pNext chain of the sname:VkMemoryRequirements2KHR structure passed as
the pname:pMemoryRequirements parameter of a
fname:vkGetImageMemoryRequirements2KHR call and
ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_SPARSE_BINDING_BIT was set in
sname:VkImageCreateInfo::pname:flags when pname:image was created then the
implementation must: set both pname:prefersDedicatedAllocation and
pname:requiresDedicatedAllocation to ename:VK_FALSE.

include::../validity/structs/VkMemoryDedicatedRequirementsKHR.txt[]

--

endif::VK_KHR_dedicated_allocation[]

[open,refpage='vkBindBufferMemory',desc='Bind device memory to a buffer object',type='protos']
--

To attach memory to a buffer object, call:

include::../api/protos/vkBindBufferMemory.txt[]

  * pname:device is the logical device that owns the buffer and memory.
  * pname:buffer is the buffer to be attached to memory.
  * pname:memory is a sname:VkDeviceMemory object describing the device
    memory to attach.
  * pname:memoryOffset is the start offset of the region of pname:memory
    which is to be bound to the buffer.
    The number of bytes returned in the
    sname:VkMemoryRequirements::pname:size member in pname:memory, starting
    from pname:memoryOffset bytes, will be bound to the specified buffer.

ifdef::VK_KHR_bind_memory2[]

fname:vkBindBufferMemory is equivalent to passing the same parameters
through slink:VkBindBufferMemoryInfoKHR to flink:vkBindBufferMemory2KHR.

endif::VK_KHR_bind_memory2[]


.Valid Usage
****
  * [[VUID-vkBindBufferMemory-buffer-01029]]
    pname:buffer must: not already be backed by a memory object
  * [[VUID-vkBindBufferMemory-buffer-01030]]
    pname:buffer must: not have been created with any sparse memory binding
    flags
  * [[VUID-vkBindBufferMemory-memoryOffset-01031]]
    pname:memoryOffset must: be less than the size of pname:memory
  * [[VUID-vkBindBufferMemory-buffer-01032]]
    If pname:buffer was created with the
    ename:VK_BUFFER_USAGE_UNIFORM_TEXEL_BUFFER_BIT or
    ename:VK_BUFFER_USAGE_STORAGE_TEXEL_BUFFER_BIT, pname:memoryOffset must:
    be a multiple of
    sname:VkPhysicalDeviceLimits::pname:minTexelBufferOffsetAlignment
  * [[VUID-vkBindBufferMemory-buffer-01033]]
    If pname:buffer was created with the
    ename:VK_BUFFER_USAGE_UNIFORM_BUFFER_BIT, pname:memoryOffset must: be a
    multiple of
    sname:VkPhysicalDeviceLimits::pname:minUniformBufferOffsetAlignment
  * [[VUID-vkBindBufferMemory-buffer-01034]]
    If pname:buffer was created with the
    ename:VK_BUFFER_USAGE_STORAGE_BUFFER_BIT, pname:memoryOffset must: be a
    multiple of
    sname:VkPhysicalDeviceLimits::pname:minStorageBufferOffsetAlignment
  * [[VUID-vkBindBufferMemory-memory-01035]]
    pname:memory must: have been allocated using one of the memory types
    allowed in the pname:memoryTypeBits member of the
    sname:VkMemoryRequirements structure returned from a call to
    fname:vkGetBufferMemoryRequirements with pname:buffer
  * [[VUID-vkBindBufferMemory-memoryOffset-01036]]
    pname:memoryOffset must: be an integer multiple of the pname:alignment
    member of the sname:VkMemoryRequirements structure returned from a call
    to fname:vkGetBufferMemoryRequirements with pname:buffer
  * [[VUID-vkBindBufferMemory-size-01037]]
    The pname:size member of the sname:VkMemoryRequirements structure
    returned from a call to fname:vkGetBufferMemoryRequirements with
    pname:buffer must: be less than or equal to the size of pname:memory
    minus pname:memoryOffset
ifdef::VK_KHR_dedicated_allocation[]
  * [[VUID-vkBindBufferMemory-buffer-01444]]
    If pname:buffer requires a dedicated allocation(as reported by
    flink:vkGetBufferMemoryRequirements2KHR in
    slink:VkMemoryDedicatedRequirementsKHR::requiresDedicatedAllocation for
    pname:image), pname:memory must: have been created with
    slink:VkMemoryDedicatedAllocateInfoKHR::pname:buffer equal to
    pname:buffer
  * [[VUID-vkBindBufferMemory-memory-01508]]
    If the sname:VkmemoryAllocateInfo provided when pname:memory was
    allocated included an instance of slink:VkMemoryDedicatedAllocateInfo in
    its pname:pNext chain, and
    slink:VkMemoryDedicatedAllocateInfo::pname:buffer was not
    ename:VK_NULL_HANDLE, then pname:buffer must: equal
    slink:VkMemoryDedicatedAllocateInfo::pname:buffer and pname:memoryOffset
    must: be zero.
endif::VK_KHR_dedicated_allocation[]
ifdef::VK_NV_dedicated_allocation[]
  * [[VUID-vkBindBufferMemory-buffer-01038]]
    If pname:buffer was created with
    slink:VkDedicatedAllocationBufferCreateInfoNV::pname:dedicatedAllocation
    equal to ename:VK_TRUE, pname:memory must: have been created with
    slink:VkDedicatedAllocationMemoryAllocateInfoNV::pname:buffer equal to a
    buffer handle created with identical creation parameters to pname:buffer
    and pname:memoryOffset must: be zero
ifndef::VK_KHR_dedicated_allocation[]
  * [[VUID-vkBindBufferMemory-buffer-01039]]
    If pname:buffer was not created with
    slink:VkDedicatedAllocationBufferCreateInfoNV::pname:dedicatedAllocation
    equal to ename:VK_TRUE, pname:memory must: not have been allocated
    dedicated for a specific buffer or image
endif::VK_KHR_dedicated_allocation[]
endif::VK_NV_dedicated_allocation[]
****

include::../validity/protos/vkBindBufferMemory.txt[]
--

ifdef::VK_KHR_bind_memory2[]

[open,refpage='vkBindBufferMemory2KHR',desc='Bind device memory to buffer objects',type='protos']
--

To attach memory to buffer objects for one or more buffers at a time, call:

include::../api/protos/vkBindBufferMemory2KHR.txt[]

  * pname:device is the logical device that owns the buffers and memory.
  * pname:bindInfoCount is the number of elements in pname:pBindInfos.
  * pname:pBindInfos is a pointer to an array of structures of type
    slink:VkBindBufferMemoryInfoKHR, describing buffers and memory to bind.

On some implementations, it may: be more efficient to batch memory bindings
into a single command.

include::../validity/protos/vkBindBufferMemory2KHR.txt[]
--

[open,refpage='VkBindBufferMemoryInfoKHR',desc='Structure specifying how to bind a buffer to memory',type='structs']
--

sname:VkBindBufferMemoryInfoKHR contains members corresponding to the
parameters of flink:vkBindBufferMemory.

The sname:VkBindBufferMemoryInfoKHR structure is defined as:

include::../api/structs/VkBindBufferMemoryInfoKHR.txt[]

  * pname:sType is the type of this structure.
  * pname:pNext is `NULL` or a pointer to an extension-specific structure.
  * pname:buffer is the buffer to be attached to memory.
  * pname:memory is a sname:VkDeviceMemory object describing the device
    memory to attach.
  * pname:memoryOffset is the start offset of the region of pname:memory
    which is to be bound to the buffer.
    The number of bytes returned in the
    sname:VkMemoryRequirements::pname:size member in pname:memory, starting
    from pname:memoryOffset bytes, will be bound to the specified buffer.

.Valid Usage
****
  * [[VUID-VkBindBufferMemoryInfoKHR-buffer-01593]]
    pname:buffer must: not already be backed by a memory object
  * [[VUID-VkBindBufferMemoryInfoKHR-buffer-01594]]
    pname:buffer must: not have been created with any sparse memory binding
    flags
  * [[VUID-VkBindBufferMemoryInfoKHR-memoryOffset-01595]]
    pname:memoryOffset must: be less than the size of pname:memory
  * [[VUID-VkBindBufferMemoryInfoKHR-buffer-01596]]
    If pname:buffer was created with the
    ename:VK_BUFFER_USAGE_UNIFORM_TEXEL_BUFFER_BIT or
    ename:VK_BUFFER_USAGE_STORAGE_TEXEL_BUFFER_BIT, pname:memoryOffset must:
    be a multiple of
    sname:VkPhysicalDeviceLimits::pname:minTexelBufferOffsetAlignment
  * [[VUID-VkBindBufferMemoryInfoKHR-buffer-01597]]
    If pname:buffer was created with the
    ename:VK_BUFFER_USAGE_UNIFORM_BUFFER_BIT, pname:memoryOffset must: be a
    multiple of
    sname:VkPhysicalDeviceLimits::pname:minUniformBufferOffsetAlignment
  * [[VUID-VkBindBufferMemoryInfoKHR-buffer-01598]]
    If pname:buffer was created with the
    ename:VK_BUFFER_USAGE_STORAGE_BUFFER_BIT, pname:memoryOffset must: be a
    multiple of
    sname:VkPhysicalDeviceLimits::pname:minStorageBufferOffsetAlignment
  * [[VUID-VkBindBufferMemoryInfoKHR-memory-01599]]
    pname:memory must: have been allocated using one of the memory types
    allowed in the pname:memoryTypeBits member of the
    sname:VkMemoryRequirements structure returned from a call to
    fname:vkGetBufferMemoryRequirements with pname:buffer
  * [[VUID-VkBindBufferMemoryInfoKHR-memoryOffset-01600]]
    pname:memoryOffset must: be an integer multiple of the pname:alignment
    member of the sname:VkMemoryRequirements structure returned from a call
    to fname:vkGetBufferMemoryRequirements with pname:buffer
  * [[VUID-VkBindBufferMemoryInfoKHR-size-01601]]
    The pname:size member of the sname:VkMemoryRequirements structure
    returned from a call to fname:vkGetBufferMemoryRequirements with
    pname:buffer must: be less than or equal to the size of pname:memory
    minus pname:memoryOffset
ifdef::VK_KHR_dedicated_allocation[]
  * [[VUID-VkBindBufferMemoryInfoKHR-buffer-01602]]
    If pname:buffer requires a dedicated allocation(as reported by
    flink:vkGetBufferMemoryRequirements2KHR in
    slink:VkMemoryDedicatedRequirementsKHR::requiresDedicatedAllocation for
    pname:image), pname:memory must: have been created with
    slink:VkMemoryDedicatedAllocateInfoKHR::pname:buffer equal to
    pname:buffer and pname:memoryOffset must: be zero
endif::VK_KHR_dedicated_allocation[]
ifdef::VK_NV_dedicated_allocation[]
  * [[VUID-VkBindBufferMemoryInfoKHR-buffer-01603]]
    If pname:buffer was created with
    slink:VkDedicatedAllocationBufferCreateInfoNV::pname:dedicatedAllocation
    equal to ename:VK_TRUE, pname:memory must: have been created with
    slink:VkDedicatedAllocationMemoryAllocateInfoNV::pname:buffer equal to
    pname:buffer and pname:memoryOffset must: be zero
ifndef::VK_KHR_dedicated_allocation[]
  * [[VUID-VkBindBufferMemoryInfoKHR-buffer-01604]]
    If pname:buffer was not created with
    slink:VkDedicatedAllocationBufferCreateInfoNV::pname:dedicatedAllocation
    equal to ename:VK_TRUE, pname:memory must: not have been allocated
    dedicated for a specific buffer or image
endif::VK_KHR_dedicated_allocation[]
endif::VK_NV_dedicated_allocation[]
ifdef::VK_KHX_device_group[]
  * [[VUID-VkBindBufferMemoryInfoKHR-pNext-01605]]
    If the pname:pNext chain includes
    slink:VkBindBufferMemoryDeviceGroupInfoKHX, all instances of
    pname:memory specified by
    slink:VkBindBufferMemoryDeviceGroupInfoKHX::pname:pDeviceIndices must:
    have been allocated
endif::VK_KHX_device_group[]
****

include::../validity/structs/VkBindBufferMemoryInfoKHR.txt[]

--

ifdef::VK_KHX_device_group[]

[open,refpage='VkBindBufferMemoryDeviceGroupInfoKHX',desc='Structure specifying device within a group to bind to',type='structs']
--

include::../api/structs/VkBindBufferMemoryDeviceGroupInfoKHX.txt[]

If the pname:pNext list of slink:VkBindBufferMemoryInfoKHR includes a
sname:VkBindBufferMemoryDeviceGroupInfoKHX structure, then that structure
determines how memory is bound to buffers across multiple devices in a
device group.

The sname:VkBindBufferMemoryDeviceGroupInfoKHX structure is defined as:

  * pname:sType is the type of this structure.
  * pname:pNext is `NULL` or a pointer to an extension-specific structure.
  * pname:deviceIndexCount is the number of elements in
    pname:pDeviceIndices.
  * pname:pDeviceIndices is a pointer to an array of device indices.

If pname:deviceIndexCount is greater than zero, then on device index [eq]#i#
the buffer is attached to the instance of pname:memory on the physical
device with device index [eq]#pDeviceIndices[i]#.

If pname:deviceIndexCount is zero and pname:memory comes from a memory heap
with the ename:VK_MEMORY_HEAP_MULTI_INSTANCE_BIT_KHX bit set, then it is as
if pname:pDeviceIndices contains consecutive indices from zero to the number
of physical devices in the logical device, minus one.
In other words, by default each physical device attaches to its own instance
of pname:memory.

If pname:deviceIndexCount is zero and pname:memory comes from a memory heap
without the ename:VK_MEMORY_HEAP_MULTI_INSTANCE_BIT_KHX bit set, then it is
as if pname:pDeviceIndices contains an array of zeros.
In other words, by default each physical device attaches to instance zero.

.Valid Usage
****
  * [[VUID-VkBindBufferMemoryDeviceGroupInfoKHX-deviceIndexCount-01606]]
    pname:deviceIndexCount must: either be zero or equal to the number of
    physical devices in the logical device
  * [[VUID-VkBindBufferMemoryDeviceGroupInfoKHX-pDeviceIndices-01607]]
    All elements of pname:pDeviceIndices must: be valid device indices
****

include::../validity/structs/VkBindBufferMemoryDeviceGroupInfoKHX.txt[]
--

endif::VK_KHX_device_group[]
endif::VK_KHR_bind_memory2[]

[open,refpage='vkBindImageMemory',desc='Bind device memory to an image object',type='protos']
--


ifndef::VK_KHR_sampler_ycbcr_conversion[]
To attach memory to an image object, call:
endif::VK_KHR_sampler_ycbcr_conversion[]
ifdef::VK_KHR_sampler_ycbcr_conversion[]
To attach memory to a sname:VkImage object created without the
ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_DISJOINT_BIT_KHR set, call:
endif::VK_KHR_sampler_ycbcr_conversion[]

include::../api/protos/vkBindImageMemory.txt[]

  * pname:device is the logical device that owns the image and memory.
  * pname:image is the image.
  * pname:memory is the sname:VkDeviceMemory object describing the device
    memory to attach.
  * pname:memoryOffset is the start offset of the region of pname:memory
    which is to be bound to the image.
    The number of bytes returned in the
    sname:VkMemoryRequirements::pname:size member in pname:memory, starting
    from pname:memoryOffset bytes, will be bound to the specified image.

ifdef::VK_KHR_bind_memory2[]

fname:vkBindImageMemory is equivalent to passing the same parameters through
slink:VkBindImageMemoryInfoKHR to flink:vkBindImageMemory2KHR.

endif::VK_KHR_bind_memory2[]

.Valid Usage
****
ifdef::VK_KHR_sampler_ycbcr_conversion[]
  * [[VUID-vkBindImageMemory-image-01608]]
    pname:image must: not have been created with the
    ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_DISJOINT_BIT_KHR set.
endif::VK_KHR_sampler_ycbcr_conversion[]
  * [[VUID-vkBindImageMemory-image-01044]]
    pname:image must: not already be backed by a memory object
  * [[VUID-vkBindImageMemory-image-01045]]
    pname:image must: not have been created with any sparse memory binding
    flags
  * [[VUID-vkBindImageMemory-memoryOffset-01046]]
    pname:memoryOffset must: be less than the size of pname:memory
  * [[VUID-vkBindImageMemory-memory-01047]]
    pname:memory must: have been allocated using one of the memory types
    allowed in the pname:memoryTypeBits member of the
    sname:VkMemoryRequirements structure returned from a call to
    fname:vkGetImageMemoryRequirements with pname:image
  * [[VUID-vkBindImageMemory-memoryOffset-01048]]
    pname:memoryOffset must: be an integer multiple of the pname:alignment
    member of the sname:VkMemoryRequirements structure returned from a call
    to fname:vkGetImageMemoryRequirements with pname:image
  * [[VUID-vkBindImageMemory-size-01049]]
    The pname:size member of the sname:VkMemoryRequirements structure
    returned from a call to fname:vkGetImageMemoryRequirements with
    pname:image must: be less than or equal to the size of pname:memory
    minus pname:memoryOffset
ifdef::VK_KHR_dedicated_allocation[]
  * [[VUID-vkBindImageMemory-image-01445]]
    If pname:image requires a dedicated allocation (as reported by
    flink:vkGetImageMemoryRequirements2KHR in
    slink:VkMemoryDedicatedRequirementsKHR::requiresDedicatedAllocation for
    pname:image), pname:memory must: have been created with
    slink:VkMemoryDedicatedAllocateInfoKHR::pname:image equal to pname:image
  * [[VUID-vkBindImageMemory-memory-01509]]
    If the sname:VkmemoryAllocateInfo provided when pname:memory was
    allocated included an instance of slink:VkMemoryDedicatedAllocateInfo in
    its pname:pNext chain, and
    slink:VkMemoryDedicatedAllocateInfo::pname:image was not
    ename:VK_NULL_HANDLE, then pname:image must: equal
    slink:VkMemoryDedicatedAllocateInfo::pname:image and pname:memoryOffset
    must: be zero.
endif::VK_KHR_dedicated_allocation[]
ifdef::VK_NV_dedicated_allocation[]
  * [[VUID-vkBindImageMemory-image-01050]]
    If pname:image was created with
    slink:VkDedicatedAllocationImageCreateInfoNV::pname:dedicatedAllocation
    equal to ename:VK_TRUE, pname:memory must: have been created with
    slink:VkDedicatedAllocationMemoryAllocateInfoNV::pname:image equal to an
    image handle created with identical creation parameters to pname:image
    and pname:memoryOffset must: be zero
ifndef::VK_KHR_dedicated_allocation[]
  * [[VUID-vkBindImageMemory-image-01051]]
    If pname:image was not created with
    slink:VkDedicatedAllocationImageCreateInfoNV::pname:dedicatedAllocation
    equal to ename:VK_TRUE, pname:memory must: not have been allocated
    dedicated for a specific buffer or image
endif::VK_KHR_dedicated_allocation[]
endif::VK_NV_dedicated_allocation[]
****

include::../validity/protos/vkBindImageMemory.txt[]
--

ifdef::VK_KHR_bind_memory2[]
[open,refpage='vkBindImageMemory2KHR',desc='Bind device memory to image objects',type='protos']
--

To attach memory to image objects for one or more images at a time, call:

include::../api/protos/vkBindImageMemory2KHR.txt[]

  * pname:device is the logical device that owns the images and memory.
  * pname:bindInfoCount is the number of elements in pname:pBindInfos.
  * pname:pBindInfos is a pointer to an array of structures of type
    slink:VkBindImageMemoryInfoKHR, describing images and memory to bind.

On some implementations, it may: be more efficient to batch memory bindings
into a single command.

include::../validity/protos/vkBindImageMemory2KHR.txt[]
--

[open,refpage='VkBindImageMemoryInfoKHR',desc='Structure specifying how to bind an image to memory',type='structs']
--

sname:VkBindImageMemoryInfoKHR contains members corresponding to the
parameters of flink:vkBindImageMemory.

The sname:VkBindImageMemoryInfoKHR structure is defined as:

include::../api/structs/VkBindImageMemoryInfoKHR.txt[]

  * pname:sType is the type of this structure.
  * pname:pNext is `NULL` or a pointer to an extension-specific structure.
  * pname:image is the image to be attached to memory.
  * pname:memory is a sname:VkDeviceMemory object describing the device
    memory to attach.
  * pname:memoryOffset is the start offset of the region of pname:memory
    which is to be bound to the image.
    The number of bytes returned in the
    sname:VkMemoryRequirements::pname:size member in pname:memory, starting
    from pname:memoryOffset bytes, will be bound to the specified image.

.Valid Usage
****
  * [[VUID-VkBindImageMemoryInfoKHR-image-01609]]
    pname:image must: not already be backed by a memory object
  * [[VUID-VkBindImageMemoryInfoKHR-image-01610]]
    pname:image must: not have been created with any sparse memory binding
    flags
  * [[VUID-VkBindImageMemoryInfoKHR-memoryOffset-01611]]
    pname:memoryOffset must: be less than the size of pname:memory
ifndef::VK_KHR_sampler_ycbcr_conversion[]
  * [[VUID-VkBindImageMemoryInfoKHR-memory-01612]]
    pname:memory must: have been allocated using one of the memory types
    allowed in the pname:memoryTypeBits member of the
    slink:VkMemoryRequirements structure returned from a call to
    flink:vkGetImageMemoryRequirements with pname:image
  * [[VUID-VkBindImageMemoryInfoKHR-memoryOffset-01613]]
    pname:memoryOffset must: be an integer multiple of the pname:alignment
    member of the slink:VkMemoryRequirements structure returned from a call
    to flink:vkGetImageMemoryRequirements with pname:image
  * [[VUID-VkBindImageMemoryInfoKHR-memory-01614]]
    The difference of the size of pname:memory and pname:memoryOffset must:
    be greater than or equal to the pname:size member of the
    slink:VkMemoryRequirements structure returned from a call to
    flink:vkGetImageMemoryRequirements with the same pname:image
endif::VK_KHR_sampler_ycbcr_conversion[]
ifdef::VK_KHR_sampler_ycbcr_conversion[]
  * [[VUID-VkBindImageMemoryInfoKHR-pNext-01615]]
    If the pname:pNext chain does not include an instance of the
    slink:VkBindImagePlaneMemoryInfoKHR structure, pname:memory must: have
    been allocated using one of the memory types allowed in the
    pname:memoryTypeBits member of the slink:VkMemoryRequirements structure
    returned from a call to flink:vkGetImageMemoryRequirements2KHR with
    pname:image
  * [[VUID-VkBindImageMemoryInfoKHR-pNext-01616]]
    If the pname:pNext chain does not include an instance of the
    slink:VkBindImagePlaneMemoryInfoKHR structure, pname:memoryOffset must:
    be an integer multiple of the pname:alignment member of the
    slink:VkMemoryRequirements structure returned from a call to
    flink:vkGetImageMemoryRequirements2KHR with pname:image
  * [[VUID-VkBindImageMemoryInfoKHR-pNext-01617]]
    If the pname:pNext chain does not include an instance of the
    slink:VkBindImagePlaneMemoryInfoKHR structure, the difference of the
    size of pname:memory and pname:memoryOffset must: be greater than or
    equal to the pname:size member of the slink:VkMemoryRequirements
    structure returned from a call to flink:vkGetImageMemoryRequirements2KHR
    with the same pname:image
  * [[VUID-VkBindImageMemoryInfoKHR-pNext-01618]]
    If the pname:pNext chain includes an instance of the
    slink:VkBindImagePlaneMemoryInfoKHR structure, pname:image must: have
    been created with the ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_DISJOINT_BIT_KHR bit set.
  * [[VUID-VkBindImageMemoryInfoKHR-pNext-01619]]
    If the pname:pNext chain includes an instance of the
    slink:VkBindImagePlaneMemoryInfoKHR structure, pname:memory must: have
    been allocated using one of the memory types allowed in the
    pname:memoryTypeBits member of the slink:VkMemoryRequirements structure
    returned from a call to flink:vkGetImageMemoryRequirements2KHR with
    pname:image and the correct pname:planeAspect for this plane in the
    slink:VkImagePlaneMemoryRequirementsInfoKHR structure attached to the
    slink:VkImageMemoryRequirementsInfo2KHR's pname:pNext chain
  * [[VUID-VkBindImageMemoryInfoKHR-pNext-01620]]
    If the pname:pNext chain includes an instance of the
    slink:VkBindImagePlaneMemoryInfoKHR structure, pname:memoryOffset must:
    be an integer multiple of the pname:alignment member of the
    slink:VkMemoryRequirements structure returned from a call to
    flink:vkGetImageMemoryRequirements2KHR with pname:image and the correct
    pname:planeAspect for this plane in the
    slink:VkImagePlaneMemoryRequirementsInfoKHR structure attached to the
    slink:VkImageMemoryRequirementsInfo2KHR's pname:pNext chain
  * [[VUID-VkBindImageMemoryInfoKHR-pNext-01621]]
    If the pname:pNext chain includes an instance of the
    slink:VkBindImagePlaneMemoryInfoKHR structure, the difference of the
    size of pname:memory and pname:memoryOffset must: be greater than or
    equal to the pname:size member of the slink:VkMemoryRequirements
    structure returned from a call to flink:vkGetImageMemoryRequirements2KHR
    with the same pname:image and the correct pname:planeAspect for this
    plane in the slink:VkImagePlaneMemoryRequirementsInfoKHR structure
    attached to the slink:VkImageMemoryRequirementsInfo2KHR's pname:pNext
    chain
endif::VK_KHR_sampler_ycbcr_conversion[]
ifdef::VK_KHR_dedicated_allocation[]
  * [[VUID-VkBindImageMemoryInfoKHR-image-01622]]
    If pname:image requires a dedicated allocation (as reported by
    flink:vkGetImageMemoryRequirements2KHR in
    slink:VkMemoryDedicatedRequirementsKHR::requiresDedicatedAllocation for
    pname:image), pname:memory must: have been created with
    slink:VkMemoryDedicatedAllocateInfoKHR::pname:image equal to pname:image
    and pname:memoryOffset must: be zero
endif::VK_KHR_dedicated_allocation[]
ifdef::VK_NV_dedicated_allocation[]
  * [[VUID-VkBindImageMemoryInfoKHR-image-01623]]
    If pname:image was created with
    slink:VkDedicatedAllocationImageCreateInfoNV::pname:dedicatedAllocation
    equal to ename:VK_TRUE, pname:memory must: have been created with
    slink:VkDedicatedAllocationMemoryAllocateInfoNV::pname:image equal to
    pname:image and pname:memoryOffset must: be zero
ifndef::VK_KHR_dedicated_allocation[]
  * [[VUID-VkBindImageMemoryInfoKHR-image-01624]]
    If pname:image was not created with
    slink:VkDedicatedAllocationImageCreateInfoNV::pname:dedicatedAllocation
    equal to ename:VK_TRUE, pname:memory must: not have been allocated
    dedicated for a specific buffer or image
endif::VK_KHR_dedicated_allocation[]
endif::VK_NV_dedicated_allocation[]
ifndef::VK_KHX_device_group[]
  * [[VUID-VkBindImageMemoryInfoKHR-memory-01625]]
    pname:memory must: be a valid dname:VkDeviceMemory handle
endif::VK_KHX_device_group[]
ifdef::VK_KHX_device_group[]
  * [[VUID-VkBindImageMemoryInfoKHR-pNext-01626]]
    If the pname:pNext chain includes
    slink:VkBindImageMemoryDeviceGroupInfoKHX, all instances of pname:memory
    specified by
    slink:VkBindImageMemoryDeviceGroupInfoKHX::pname:pDeviceIndices must:
    have been allocated
  * [[VUID-VkBindImageMemoryInfoKHR-pNext-01627]]
    If the pname:pNext chain includes
    slink:VkBindImageMemoryDeviceGroupInfoKHX, and
    slink:VkBindImageMemoryDeviceGroupInfoKHX::pname:SFRRectCount is not
    zero, then pname:image must: have been created with the
    ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_BIND_SFR_BIT_KHX bit set
  * [[VUID-VkBindImageMemoryInfoKHR-pNext-01628]]
    If the pname:pNext chain includes
    slink:VkBindImageMemoryDeviceGroupInfoKHX, all elements of
    slink:VkBindImageMemoryDeviceGroupInfoKHX::pname:pSFRRects must: be
    valid rectangles contained within the dimensions of pname:image
  * [[VUID-VkBindImageMemoryInfoKHR-pNext-01629]]
    If the pname:pNext chain includes
    slink:VkBindImageMemoryDeviceGroupInfoKHX, the union of the areas of all
    elements of slink:VkBindImageMemoryDeviceGroupInfoKHX::pname:pSFRRects
    that correspond to the same instance of pname: image must: cover the
    entire image.
  * [[VUID-VkBindImageMemoryInfoKHR-image-01630]]
    If pname:image was created with a valid swapchain handle in
    slink:VkImageSwapchainCreateInfoKHX::pname:swapchain, then the
    pname:pNext chain must: include a valid instance of
    slink:VkBindImageMemorySwapchainInfoKHX
  * [[VUID-VkBindImageMemoryInfoKHR-pNext-01631]]
    If the pname:pNext chain includes an instance of
    slink:VkBindImageMemorySwapchainInfoKHX, pname:memory must: be
    dlink:VK_NULL_HANDLE
  * [[VUID-VkBindImageMemoryInfoKHR-pNext-01632]]
    If the pname:pNext chain does not include an instance of
    slink:VkBindImageMemorySwapchainInfoKHX, pname:memory must: be a valid
    dname:VkDeviceMemory handle
endif::VK_KHX_device_group[]
****

include::../validity/structs/VkBindImageMemoryInfoKHR.txt[]

--

ifdef::VK_KHR_device_group[]

[open,refpage='VkBindImageMemoryDeviceGroupInfoKHX',desc='Structure specifying device within a group to bind to',type='structs']
--

include::../api/structs/VkBindImageMemoryDeviceGroupInfoKHX.txt[]

If the pname:pNext list of slink:VkBindImageMemoryInfoKHR includes a
sname:VkBindImageMemoryDeviceGroupInfoKHX structure, then that structure
determines how memory is bound to images across multiple devices in a device
group.

The sname:VkBindImageMemoryDeviceGroupInfoKHX structure is defined as:

  * pname:sType is the type of this structure.
  * pname:pNext is `NULL` or a pointer to an extension-specific structure.
  * pname:deviceIndexCount is the number of elements in
    pname:pDeviceIndices.
  * pname:pDeviceIndices is a pointer to an array of device indices.
  * pname:SFRRectCount is the number of elements in pname:pSFRRects.
  * pname:pSFRRects is a pointer to an array of rectangles describing which
    regions of the image are attached to each instance of memory.

If pname:deviceIndexCount is greater than zero, then on device index [eq]#i#
pname:image is attached to the instance of the memory on the physical device
with device index [eq]#pDeviceIndices[i]#.

Let [eq]#N# be the number of physical devices in the logical device.
If pname:SFRRectCount is greater than zero, then pname:pSFRRects is an array
of [eq]#N^2^# rectangles, where the image region specified by the rectangle
at element [eq]#i*N+j# in resource instance [eq]#i# is bound to the memory
instance [eq]#j#.
The blocks of the memory that are bound to each sparse image block region
use an offset in memory, relative to pname:memoryOffset, computed as if the
whole image were being bound to a contiguous range of memory.
In other words, horizontally adjacent image blocks use consecutive blocks of
memory, vertically adjacent image blocks are separated by the number of
bytes per block multiplied by the width in blocks of pname:image, and the
block at [eq]#(0,0)# corresponds to memory starting at pname:memoryOffset.

If pname:SFRRectCount and pname:deviceIndexCount are zero and the memory
comes from a memory heap with the
ename:VK_MEMORY_HEAP_MULTI_INSTANCE_BIT_KHX bit set, then it is as if
pname:pDeviceIndices contains consecutive indices from zero to the number of
physical devices in the logical device, minus one.
In other words, by default each physical device attaches to its own instance
of the memory.

If pname:SFRRectCount and pname:deviceIndexCount are zero and the memory
comes from a memory heap without the
ename:VK_MEMORY_HEAP_MULTI_INSTANCE_BIT_KHX bit set, then it is as if
pname:pDeviceIndices contains an array of zeros.
In other words, by default each physical device attaches to instance zero.

.Valid Usage
****
  * [[VUID-VkBindImageMemoryDeviceGroupInfoKHX-deviceIndexCount-01633]]
    At least one of pname:deviceIndexCount and pname:SFRRectCount must: be
    zero.
  * [[VUID-VkBindImageMemoryDeviceGroupInfoKHX-deviceIndexCount-01634]]
    pname:deviceIndexCount must: either be zero or equal to the number of
    physical devices in the logical device
  * [[VUID-VkBindImageMemoryDeviceGroupInfoKHX-pDeviceIndices-01635]]
    All elements of pname:pDeviceIndices must: be valid device indices.
  * [[VUID-VkBindImageMemoryDeviceGroupInfoKHX-SFRRectCount-01636]]
    pname:SFRRectCount must: either be zero or equal to the number of
    physical devices in the logical device squared
  * [[VUID-VkBindImageMemoryDeviceGroupInfoKHX-pSFRRects-01637]]
    Elements of pname:pSFRRects that correspond to the same instance of an
    image must: not overlap.
  * [[VUID-VkBindImageMemoryDeviceGroupInfoKHX-offset-01638]]
    The pname:offset.x member of any element of pname:pSFRRects must: be a
    multiple of the sparse image block width
    (sname:VkSparseImageFormatProperties::pname:imageGranularity.width) of
    all non-metadata aspects of the image
  * [[VUID-VkBindImageMemoryDeviceGroupInfoKHX-offset-01639]]
    The pname:offset.y member of any element of pname:pSFRRects must: be a
    multiple of the sparse image block height
    (sname:VkSparseImageFormatProperties::pname:imageGranularity.height) of
    all non-metadata aspects of the image
  * [[VUID-VkBindImageMemoryDeviceGroupInfoKHX-extent-01640]]
    The pname:extent.width member of any element of pname:pSFRRects must:
    either be a multiple of the sparse image block width of all non-metadata
    aspects of the image, or else pname:extent.width + pname:offset.x must:
    equal the width of the image subresource
  * [[VUID-VkBindImageMemoryDeviceGroupInfoKHX-extent-01641]]
    The pname:extent.height member of any element of pname:pSFRRects must:
    either be a multiple of the sparse image block height of all
    non-metadata aspects of the image, or else pname:extent.height +
    pname:offset.y must: equal the width of the image subresource
****

include::../validity/structs/VkBindImageMemoryDeviceGroupInfoKHX.txt[]
--

ifdef::VK_KHR_sampler_ycbcr_conversion[]

[open,refpage='VkBindImagePlaneMemoryInfoKHR',desc='Structure specifying how to bind an image plane to memory',type='structs']
--

In order to bind _planes_ of a _disjoint image_, include a
sname:VkBindImagePlaneMemoryInfoKHR structure in the pname:pNext chain of
slink:VkBindImageMemoryInfoKHR.

The sname:VkBindImagePlaneMemoryInfoKHR structure is defined as:

include::../api/structs/VkBindImagePlaneMemoryInfoKHR.txt[]

  * pname:sType is the type of this structure.
  * pname:pNext is `NULL` or a pointer to an extension-specific structure.
  * pname:planeAspect is the aspect of the disjoint image plane to bind.

.Valid Usage
****
  * [[VUID-VkBindImagePlaneMemoryInfoKHR-planeAspect-01642]]
    pname:planeAspect must: be a single valid plane aspect for the image
    format (that is, pname:planeAspect must: be
    ename:VK_IMAGE_ASPECT_PLANE_0_BIT_KHR or
    ename:VK_IMAGE_ASPECT_PLANE_1_BIT_KHR for "`etext:_2PLANE`" formats and
    pname:planeAspect must: be ename:VK_IMAGE_ASPECT_PLANE_0_BIT_KHR,
    ename:VK_IMAGE_ASPECT_PLANE_1_BIT_KHR, or
    ename:VK_IMAGE_ASPECT_PLANE_2_BIT_KHR for "`etext:_3PLANE`" formats)
  * [[VUID-VkBindImagePlaneMemoryInfoKHR-None-01643]]
    A single call to flink:vkBindImageMemory2KHR must: bind all or none of
    the planes of an image (i.e. bindings to all planes of an image must: be
    made in a single flink:vkBindImageMemory2KHR call), as separate bindings
****

include::../validity/structs/VkBindImagePlaneMemoryInfoKHR.txt[]
--

endif::VK_KHR_sampler_ycbcr_conversion[]

[open,refpage='VkBindImageMemorySwapchainInfoKHX',desc='Structure specifying swapchain image memory to bind to',type='structs']
--

If the pname:pNext chain of slink:VkBindImageMemoryInfoKHR includes a
sname:VkBindImageMemorySwapchainInfoKHX structure, then that structure
includes a swapchain handle and image index indicating that the image will
be bound to memory from that swapchain.

The sname:VkBindImageMemorySwapchainInfoKHX structure is defined as:

include::../api/structs/VkBindImageMemorySwapchainInfoKHX.txt[]

  * pname:sType is the type of this structure.
  * pname:pNext is `NULL` or a pointer to an extension-specific structure.
  * pname:swapchain is dlink:VK_NULL_HANDLE or a swapchain handle.
  * pname:imageIndex is an image index within pname:swapchain.

If pname:swapchain is not `NULL`, the pname:swapchain and pname:imageIndex
are used to determine the memory that the image is bound to, instead of
pname:memory and pname:memoryOffset.

Memory can: be bound to a swapchain and use the pname:pDeviceIndices or
pname:pSFRRects members of slink:VkBindImageMemoryDeviceGroupInfoKHX.

.Valid Usage
****
  * [[VUID-VkBindImageMemorySwapchainInfoKHX-imageIndex-01644]]
    pname:imageIndex must: be less than the number of images in
    pname:swapchain
****

include::../validity/structs/VkBindImageMemorySwapchainInfoKHX.txt[]
--

endif::VK_KHR_device_group[]
endif::VK_KHR_bind_memory2[]


[[resources-bufferimagegranularity,Buffer-Image Granularity]]
.Buffer-Image Granularity
There is an implementation-dependent limit, pname:bufferImageGranularity,
which specifies a page-like granularity at which linear and non-linear
resources must: be placed in adjacent memory locations to avoid aliasing.
Two resources which do not satisfy this granularity requirement are said to
<<resources-memory-aliasing,alias>>.
pname:bufferImageGranularity is specified in bytes, and must: be a power of
two.
Implementations which do not require such an additional granularity may:
report a value of one.

[NOTE]
.Note
====
Despite its name, pname:bufferImageGranularity is really a granularity
between "linear" and "non-linear" resources.
====

Given resourceA at the lower memory offset and resourceB at the higher
memory offset in the same sname:VkDeviceMemory object, where one resource
linear and the other is non-linear (as defined in the
<<glossary-linear-resource,glossary>>), and the following:

[source,c]
---------------------------------------------------
resourceA.end       = resourceA.memoryOffset + resourceA.size - 1
resourceA.endPage   = resourceA.end & ~(bufferImageGranularity-1)
resourceB.start     = resourceB.memoryOffset
resourceB.startPage = resourceB.start & ~(bufferImageGranularity-1)
---------------------------------------------------

The following property must: hold:

[source,c]
---------------------------------------------------
resourceA.endPage < resourceB.startPage
---------------------------------------------------

That is, the end of the first resource (A) and the beginning of the second
resource (B) must: be on separate "`pages`" of size
pname:bufferImageGranularity.
pname:bufferImageGranularity may: be different than the physical page size
of the memory heap.
This restriction is only needed when a linear resource and a non-linear
resource are adjacent in memory and will be used simultaneously.
The memory ranges of adjacent resources can: be closer than
pname:bufferImageGranularity, provided they meet the pname:alignment
requirement for the objects in question.

Sparse block size in bytes and sparse image and buffer memory alignments
must: all be multiples of the pname:bufferImageGranularity.
Therefore, memory bound to sparse resources naturally satisfies the
pname:bufferImageGranularity.

[[resources-sharing]]
== Resource Sharing Mode

[open,refpage='VkSharingMode',desc='Buffer and image sharing modes',type='enums']
--

Buffer and image objects are created with a _sharing mode_ controlling how
they can: be accessed from queues.
The supported sharing modes are:

include::../api/enums/VkSharingMode.txt[]

  * ename:VK_SHARING_MODE_EXCLUSIVE specifies that access to any range or
    image subresource of the object will be exclusive to a single queue
    family at a time.
  * ename:VK_SHARING_MODE_CONCURRENT specifies that concurrent access to any
    range or image subresource of the object from multiple queue families is
    supported.

[NOTE]
.Note
====
ename:VK_SHARING_MODE_CONCURRENT may: result in lower performance access to
the buffer or image than ename:VK_SHARING_MODE_EXCLUSIVE.
====

Ranges of buffers and image subresources of image objects created using
ename:VK_SHARING_MODE_EXCLUSIVE must: only be accessed by queues in the same
queue family at any given time.
In order for a different queue family to be able to interpret the memory
contents of a range or image subresource, the application must: perform a
<<synchronization-queue-transfers,queue family ownership transfer>>.

Upon creation, resources using ename:VK_SHARING_MODE_EXCLUSIVE are not owned
by any queue family.
A buffer or image memory barrier is not required to acquire _ownership_ when
no queue family owns the resource - it is implicitly acquired upon first use
within a queue.

.Note
[NOTE]
====
Images still require a <<resources-image-layouts, layout transition>> from
ename:VK_IMAGE_LAYOUT_UNDEFINED or ename:VK_IMAGE_LAYOUT_PREINITIALIZED
before being used on the first queue.
====

A queue family can: take ownership of an image subresource or buffer range
of a resource created with ename:VK_SHARING_MODE_EXCLUSIVE, without an
ownership transfer, in the same way as for a resource that was just created;
however, taking ownership in this way has the effect that the contents of
the image subresource or buffer range are undefined.

Ranges of buffers and image subresources of image objects created using
ename:VK_SHARING_MODE_CONCURRENT must: only be accessed by queues from the
queue families specified through the pname:queueFamilyIndexCount and
pname:pQueueFamilyIndices members of the corresponding create info
structures.

--


ifdef::VK_KHR_external_memory[]

[[resources-external-sharing]]
=== External Resource Sharing

Resources may only be accessed in the Vulkan instance that has exclusive
ownership of their underlying memory.
Only one Vulkan instance has exclusive ownership of a resource's underlying
memory at a given time, regardless of whether the resource was created using
ename:VK_SHARING_MODE_EXCLUSIVE or ename:VK_SHARING_MODE_CONCURRENT.
Applications can transfer ownership of a resource's underlying memory only
if the memory has been imported from or exported to another instance or
external API using external memory handles.
The semantics for transferring ownership outside of the instance are similar
to those used for transferring ownership of ename:VK_SHARING_MODE_EXCLUSIVE
resources between queues, and is also accomplished using
slink:VkBufferMemoryBarrier or slink:VkImageMemoryBarrier operations.
Applications must:

  . Release exclusive ownership from the source instance or API.
  . Ensure the release operation has completed using semaphores or fences.
  . Acquire exclusive ownership in the destination instance or API

Unlike queue ownership transfers, the destination instance or API is not
specified explicitly when releasing ownership, nor is the source instance or
API specified when acquiring ownership.
Instead, the image or memory barrier's pname:dstQueueFamilyIndex or
pname:srcQueueFamilyIndex parameters are set to the reserved queue family
index ename:VK_QUEUE_FAMILY_EXTERNAL_KHR to represent the external
destination or source respectively.

Upon creation, memory objects shared between multiple Vulkan instances or
other APIs are not owned by any instance or API.
The first entity to access them implicitly acquires ownership.
Accessing a resource backed by memory that is owned by a particular instance
or API has the same semantics as accessing a ename:VK_SHARING_MODE_EXCLUSIVE
resource, with one exception: Implementations must: ensure layout
transitions performed on one member of a set of identical subresources of
identical images that alias the same range of an underlying memory object
affect the layout of all the subresources in the set.

As a corollary, writes to any image subresources in such a set must: not
make the contents of memory used by other subresources in the set undefined.
An application can: define the content of a subresource of one image by
performing device writes to an identical subresource of another image
provided both images are bound to the same region of external memory.
Applications may: also add resources to such a set after the content of the
existing set members has been defined without making the content undefined
by creating a new image with the initial layout
ename:VK_IMAGE_LAYOUT_UNDEFINED and binding it to the same region of
external memory as the existing images.

[NOTE]
.Note
====
Because layout transitions apply to all identical images aliasing the same
region of external memory, the actual layout of the memory backing a new
image as well as an existing image with defined content will not be
undefined.
Such an image is not usable until it acquires ownership of its memory from
the existing owner.
Therefore, the layout specified as part of this transition will be the true
initial layout of the image.
The undefined layout specified when creating it is a placeholder to simplify
valid usage requirements.
====

endif::VK_KHR_external_memory[]


[[resources-memory-aliasing]]
== Memory Aliasing

A range of a sname:VkDeviceMemory allocation is _aliased_ if it is bound to
multiple resources simultaneously, as described below, via
flink:vkBindImageMemory, flink:vkBindBufferMemory,
ifndef::VK_KHR_external_memory[]
or via <<sparsememory-resource-binding,sparse memory bindings>>.
endif::VK_KHR_external_memory[]
ifdef::VK_KHR_external_memory[]
via <<sparsememory-resource-binding,sparse memory bindings>>, or by binding
the memory to resources in multiple Vulkan instances or external APIs using
external memory handle export and import mechanisms.
endif::VK_KHR_external_memory[]

Consider two resources, resource~A~ and resource~B~, bound respectively to
memory range~A~ and range~B~.
Let paddedRange~A~ and paddedRange~B~ be, respectively, range~A~ and
range~B~ aligned to pname:bufferImageGranularity.
If the resources are both linear or both non-linear (as defined in the
<<glossary-linear-resource,glossary>>), then the resources _alias_ the
memory in the intersection of range~A~ and range~B~.
If one resource is linear and the other is non-linear, then the resources
_alias_ the memory in the intersection of paddedRange~A~ and paddedRange~B~.

Applications can: alias memory, but use of multiple aliases is subject to
several constraints.

[NOTE]
.Note
====
Memory aliasing can: be useful to reduce the total device memory footprint
of an application, if some large resources are used for disjoint periods of
time.
====

When an opaque, non-ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_SPARSE_RESIDENCY_BIT image is
bound to an aliased range, all image subresources of the image _overlap_ the
range.
When a linear image is bound to an aliased range, the image subresources
that (according to the image's advertised layout) include bytes from the
aliased range overlap the range.
When a ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_SPARSE_RESIDENCY_BIT image has sparse image
blocks bound to an aliased range, only image subresources including those
sparse image blocks overlap the range, and when the memory bound to the
image's mip tail overlaps an aliased range all image subresources in the mip
tail overlap the range.

Buffers, and linear image subresources in either the
ename:VK_IMAGE_LAYOUT_PREINITIALIZED or ename:VK_IMAGE_LAYOUT_GENERAL
layouts, are _host-accessible subresources_.
That is, the host has a well-defined addressing scheme to interpret the
contents, and thus the layout of the data in memory can: be consistently
interpreted across aliases if each of those aliases is a host-accessible
subresource.
Non-linear images, and linear image subresources in other layouts, are not
host-accessible.

If two aliases are both host-accessible, then they interpret the contents of
the memory in consistent ways, and data written to one alias can: be read by
the other alias.

ifdef::VK_KHR_bind_memory2[]
[[resources-memory-aliasing-consistency]]
If two aliases are both images that were created with identical creation
parameters, both were created with the ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_ALIAS_BIT_KHR
flag set, and both are bound identically to memory
ifdef::VK_KHX_device_group[]
except for slink:VkBindImageMemoryDeviceGroupInfoKHX::pname:pDeviceIndices
and slink:VkBindImageMemoryDeviceGroupInfoKHX::pname:pSFRRects,
endif::VK_KHX_device_group[]
then they interpret the contents of the memory in consistent ways, and data
written to one alias can: be read by the other alias.

ifdef::VK_KHR_sampler_ycbcr_conversion[]
[[resources-memory-aliasing-consistency-planes]]
Additionally, if an invididual plane of a multi-planar image and a
single-plane image alias the same memory, then they also interpret the
contents of the memory in consistent ways under the same conditions, but
with the following modifications:

  * Both must: have been created with the
    ename:VK_IMAGE_CREATE_DISJOINT_BIT_KHR flag.
  * The single-plane image must: have an elink:VkFormat that is
    <<features-formats-compatible-planes,equivalent>> to that of the
    multi-planar image's individual plane.
  * The single-plane image and the individual plane of the multi-planar
    image must: be bound identically to memory
ifdef::VK_KHX_device_group[]
    except for
    slink:VkBindImageMemoryDeviceGroupInfoKHX::pname:pDeviceIndices and
    slink:VkBindImageMemoryDeviceGroupInfoKHX::pname:pSFRRects.
endif::VK_KHX_device_group[]
  * The pname:width and pname:height of the single-plane image are derived
    from the multi-planar image's dimensions in the manner listed for
    <<features-formats-compatible-planes,plane compatibility>> for the
    aliased plane.
  * All other creation parameters must: be identical

endif::VK_KHR_sampler_ycbcr_conversion[]
endif::VK_KHR_bind_memory2[]

ifdef::VK_KHR_external_memory[]
Aliases created by binding the same memory to resources in multiple Vulkan
instances or external APIs using external memory handle export and import
mechanisms interpret the contents of the memory in consistent ways, and data
written to one alias can: be read by the other alias.
endif::VK_KHR_external_memory[]

Otherwise, the aliases interpret the contents of the memory differently, and
writes via one alias make the contents of memory partially or completely
undefined to the other alias.
If the first alias is a host-accessible subresource, then the bytes affected
are those written by the memory operations according to its addressing
scheme.
If the first alias is not host-accessible, then the bytes affected are those
overlapped by the image subresources that were written.
If the second alias is a host-accessible subresource, the affected bytes
become undefined.
If the second alias is a not host-accessible, all sparse image blocks (for
sparse partially-resident images) or all image subresources (for non-sparse
image and fully resident sparse images) that overlap the affected bytes
become undefined.

If any image subresources are made undefined due to writes to an alias, then
each of those image subresources must: have its layout transitioned from
ename:VK_IMAGE_LAYOUT_UNDEFINED to a valid layout before it is used, or from
ename:VK_IMAGE_LAYOUT_PREINITIALIZED if the memory has been written by the
host.
If any sparse blocks of a sparse image have been made undefined, then only
the image subresources containing them must: be transitioned.

Use of an overlapping range by two aliases must: be separated by a memory
dependency using the appropriate <<synchronization-access-types, access
types>> if at least one of those uses performs writes, whether the aliases
interpret memory consistently or not.
If buffer or image memory barriers are used, the scope of the barrier must:
contain the entire range and/or set of image subresources that overlap.

If two aliasing image views are used in the same framebuffer, then the
render pass must: declare the attachments using the
<<renderpass-aliasing,ename:VK_ATTACHMENT_DESCRIPTION_MAY_ALIAS_BIT>>, and
follow the other rules listed in that section.

Access to resources which alias memory from shaders using variables
decorated with code:Coherent are not automatically coherent with each other.

[NOTE]
.Note
====
Memory recycled via an application suballocator (i.e. without freeing and
reallocating the memory objects) is not substantially different from memory
aliasing.
However, a suballocator usually waits on a fence before recycling a region
of memory, and signaling a fence involves sufficient implicit dependencies
to satisfy all the above requirements.
====